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Sarmarutilus rubilio (Bonaparte, 1837)

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Italy country information

Common names: Rovella, Triotto
Occurrence: endemic
Salinity: freshwater
Abundance: | Ref:
Importance: | Ref:
Aquaculture: | Ref:
Regulations: | Ref:
Uses: no uses
Comments: Found in Tyrrhenian slope from Magra to Bussento drainages, Adriatic slope from Chienti to Trigno drainages and Ofanto drainage. Introduced in southern Italy and Sicily; part of range on Adriatic slope and southernmost localities on Tyrrhenian slope possibly results from introductions (Ref. 59043). Recorded from Ombrone, Albegna, Fiora and Bruna (Ref. 45688). This species has vanished from several lakes in central Italy as a result of transfers of Rutilus aula and other more lacustrine cyprinids. In the rivers of southern Italy, this species tends to deplete the endemic Alburnus albidus and now infests every river. It is still abundant in the Tuscany and Latium regions, especially in small torrential tributaries of the main river basins of the Arno, Ombrome and Tiber Rivers and in isolated small rivers flowing into the Tyrrhenian Sea (Ref. 26100). Prefers running water and is not well adapted in stagnant waters where it is easily excluded by the introduced Leucos aula, Rutilus rutilus and possibly by other introduced, still water-adapted species such as rudds and bleaks (Ref. 96829). Has been in progressive decline (Ref. 45688). Has become invasive wherever it is introduced (Ref. 96829). Also Ref. 12291, 94493. Status of threat: near threatened (Ref. 59043, 96829).
National Checklist:
Country Information:
National Fisheries Authority:
Occurrences: Occurrences Point map
Main Ref: Gandolfi, G., S. Zerunian, P. Torricelli and A. Marconato (eds.), 1991
National Database: ICTIMED

Common names from other countries

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes(genus, species) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Teleostei (teleosts) > Cypriniformes (Carps) > Leuciscidae (Minnows) > Leuciscinae
Etymology: Sarmarutilus: Derived from the Sarmatic Sea, or Lago Mare, an ancient central European inner freshwater sea where this monotypic genus probably has its evolutionary roots..
  More on author: Bonaparte.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 7.0 - ? ; dH range: 20 - ?.   Subtropical; 10°C - 27°C (Ref. 2059); 47°N - 38°N, 7°E - 22°E

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Europe: Tyrrhenian slope from Magra to Bussento drainages, Adriatic slope from Chienti to Trigno drainages and Ofanto drainage in Italy. Introduced in southern Italy and Sicily; part of range on Adriatic slope and southernmost localities on Tyrrhenian slope possibly results from introductions.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 18.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 59043); max. reported age: 6 years (Ref. 96829)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal soft rays (total): 11; Anal soft rays: 12. Formerly placed under Rutilus and cannot be treated under Rutilus and Lecos by the following diagnostic characters: pharyngeal teeth formulae, 5-5; presence of prominent tubercles at the center of each scale of the body and on the head in breeding males; lateral stripe masked by heavy pigmentation on flanks formed by well marked crescent triangular spot on scales; and shape not found in all species of Rutilus and Lecos (Ref. 96829).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Inhabits streams with moderate current, shallow, sand or gravel bottom, and limited aquatic vegetation (Ref. 59043). Prefers running waters and is not well adapted in still waters (Ref. 96829). Occurs in groups. Feeds on small molluscs and crustaceans, insects and algae. Spawns in clear, shallow water, on gravel and aquatic vegetation on sunny days (Ref. 59043). Attains a maximum size of about 18 cm SL (Ref. 59043), but reported not to exceed 16 cm SL (Ref. 96829). Threatened due to the introduction of other species and habitat destruction. Can colonize lakes in the absence of specialized lacustrine species (Ref. 26100).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

A single female usually spawns with 2-5 males (Ref. 59043). Multiple spawner (Ref. 59043).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Bianco, P.G. and V. Ketmaier, 2014. A revision of the Rutilus complex from Mediterranean Europe with description of a new genus, Sarmarutilus, and a new species, Rutilus stoumboudae (Teleostei: Cyprinidae). Zootaxa 3481(3):379-402. (Ref. 96829)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 130435)

  Near Threatened (NT) ; Date assessed: 31 January 2006

CITES (Ref. 128078)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans


Human uses

Gamefish: yes
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource |

More information

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Egg development
Larval dynamics
Aquaculture profile
Mass conversion
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Swim. type
Gill area


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Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804):  PD50 = 1.0000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00912 (0.00603 - 0.01380), b=3.22 (3.10 - 3.34), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  2.8   ±0.43 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tmax=9; K=0.12; tm=2).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (12 of 100).