Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Sciaenidae
(Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Micropogonias: Greek, mikros = small + greek, pogon = beard (Ref. 45335).
The species Micropogonias opercularis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825) is considered as valid in Eschmeyer (CofF ver. Jul. 2010: Ref. 84883) according to López et al. (2002: Ref. 80900).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range ? - 60 m (Ref. 9626), usually 20 - 40 m (Ref. 9626). Subtropical; 27°N - 36°S, 84°W - 34°W (Ref. 54591)
Western to Southwest Atlantic: Greater Antilles and from Costa Rica to Argentina (Ref. 9626). Also reported in Nicaragua (Ref. 13613). Also reported in Brazil (Ref. 118626).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 30.6  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 27363); common length : 45.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 27363); max. published weight: 55.30 g (Ref. 118626); max. reported age: 7 years (Ref. 27)
soft rays: 7 - 9. Body silvery with a golden cast, back greyish, with distinct oblique dark streaks along scale rows extending to much below lateral line; spinous dorsal without small dark dots (Ref. 27363).
Found over muddy and sandy bottoms in coastal waters and in estuaries where the nursery and feeding grounds are located. Adults form schools. Feeding habits vary with ontogenic development and season; juveniles feed on benthic migratory crustaceans and sessile boring mollusks while adults are benthos-feeders and occasionally capture fish (Ref. 27). Undergoes seasonal migration. An important food fish which is usually marketed fresh and salted.
Isaac, V.J., 1988. Synopsis of biological data on the whitemouth croaker, Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest, 1823). FAO Fish. Synop. (150). (Ref. 27)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: highly commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 16.5 - 28, mean 26.6 (based on 196 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00851 (0.00772 - 0.00938), b=3.06 (3.03 - 3.09), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.1 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 6.1 (5.0 - 8.5) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 20 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.12-0.18; tmax=7).
Prior r = 0.71, 95% CL = 0.47 - 1.06, Based on 4 stock assessments.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (31 of 100) .