Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Osmeriformes
(Smelts) > Opisthoproctidae
(Barreleyes or spookfishes)
Etymology: Opisthoproctus: Greek, opisthe = behind + Greek,proktos = anus (Ref. 45335). More on author: Vaillant.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; depth range 300 - 800 m (Ref. 6542), usually 500 - 700 m (Ref. 6542). Deep-water; 51°N -
Circumglobal in tropical to temperate waters. Eastern Atlantic: western Ireland to Mauritania and from Sierra Leone to Angola (Ref. 6542). South China Sea (Ref.74511)
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 1 - ? cm
Max length : 10.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6542)
spines: 0. Sides of body dark; head below and behind eye sprinkled with large melanophores; snout translucent ventrally, transparent dorsally (Ref. 6597). Anal fin either with 2-3 rudimentary rays or not visible externally (Ref. 6597).
Mesopelagic (Ref. 58302). Probably not exhibiting vertical migration (Ref. 6686). The limits of its distribution coincide with the 400m-isotherm for 8°C (Ref. 6542).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Quéro, J.-C., 1990. Opisthroproctidae. p. 241-243. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 6542)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 1.5 - 5.7, mean 3.1 (based on 89 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01995 (0.00906 - 0.04395), b=3.01 (2.83 - 3.19), in cm Total Length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.1 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (26 of 100) .