Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Stephanoberyciformes
(Pricklefishes, bigscales and gibberfishes) > Melamphaidae
(Bigscale fishes or ridgeheads)
Etymology: Sio: Acronym of Scripps Institute of Oceanography (Ref. 45335). More on author: Lönnberg.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; depth range 200 - 3000 m (Ref. 51657). Deep-water; 20°S - 68°S
Atlantic, Indian and Pacific: south of 20°S. A single specimen was recorded from the Eastern Central Pacific (Ref. 5189). Record from the North Pacific (Moss, 1962) is in error (Ref. 51657).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 12.3 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5189)
Trawled below 200 m (Ref. 4241). Young are found in warmer and more northern waters.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Gon, O., 1990. Melamphaidae. p. 218-221. In O. Gon and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Fishes of the Southern Ocean. J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Grahamstown, South Africa. (Ref. 5189)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 2.1 - 7.9, mean 4.1 (based on 682 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00382 - 0.02615), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.4 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (56 of 100) .