Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Serranidae
(Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range ? - 100 m (Ref. 89707). Tropical; 32°N - 18°S, 115°W - 78°W (Ref. 89707)
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri
Eastern Pacific. Gulf of California to Peru (Ref. 5222).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 250 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 89707)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 8. Distinguished by the following characteristics: generally brownish yellow, grey or greenish; head, dorsal part of body and fins with small black spots, becoming smaller with growth; robust, elongate body, greatest width more than half of body depth, distinctly less than head length; body depth contained 2.7-3.4 times in SL; head length 2.3-2.9 times in SL; extremely broad head; flat interorbital; rounded preopercle, finely serrate; posterior and anterior nostrils round and subequal; scaly maxilla, reaching well past eye; 3-5 rows of subequal teeth on midlateral part of lower jaw; absence of canines at front of jaws (Ref. 89707).
Inhabits a variety of habitats in depths of up to 100 m (Ref. 89707).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Craig, M.T., R.T. Graham, R.A. Torres, J.R. Hyde, M.O. Freitas, B.P. Ferreira, M. Hostim-Silva, L.C. Gerhardinger, A.A. Bertoncini and D.R. Robertson, 2009. How many species of goliath grouper are there? Cryptic genetic divergence in a threatened marine fish and the resurrection of a geopolitical species. Endang Species Res 7:167-174. (Ref. 89627)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
CountriesFAO areasEcosystemsOccurrencesIntroductionsStocksEcologyDietFood itemsFood consumptionRation
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00560 - 0.02353), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.7 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (85 of 100) .