Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 10 m (Ref. 58302). Temperate; 41°N - 22°N, 117°E - 154°W
Northwest Pacific: Japan, Korea, Taiwan. Eastern Central Pacific: Hawaii. Introduced in Mediterranean Sea: Records from Malta (Ref. 95772); North Adriatic Sea, Gulf of Trieste, Italy (Ref. 106699); YYY (Ref. YYY in press, 2016).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 80.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 559); max. published weight: 6.4 kg (Ref. 40637)
Inhabits coastal rocky reefs (Ref. 43239). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Juveniles associate with drifting seaweed (Ref. 12114, 12115, 58302).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Nakabo, T., 2002. Fishes of Japan with pictorial keys to the species, English edition II. Tokai University Press, Japan, pp 867-1749. (Ref. 43239)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 16.1 - 25.2, mean 22 (based on 329 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.50 se; Based on food items.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .