Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 42 m (Ref. 27665), usually 1 - 9 m (Ref. 27665). Tropical; 28°N - 24°S
Indo-Pacific: Mauritius to the Line, Marquesan, and Tuamoto islands, south to New Caledonia and the Cook Islands. Replaced by Apogon menesemus in the Hawaiian Islands (Ref. 37816).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 19.6 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 90102)
Inhabits seaward reefs, in rocky and coralline areas. In or near shelter by day (Ref. 9710). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Feeds on free-swimming crustaceans (Ref. 13550). Solitary or in small groups (Ref 90102).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Mouthbrooders (Ref. 240). Distinct pairing during courtship and spawning (Ref. 205).
Randall, J.E., 1998. Review of the cardinalfishes (Apogonidae) of the Hawaiian Islands, with descriptions of two new species. Aqua J. Ichthyol. Aquat. Biol. 3(1):25-38. (Ref. 27665)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.1 - 29.3, mean 28 (based on 1617 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (17 of 100) .