Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 37 - 184 m (Ref. 3814). Tropical; 37°N - 34°S, 98°W - 34°W
Western Atlantic: North Carolina in USA to Brazil.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Morphology | Morphometrics
(total): 19 - 21;
soft rays: 7 - 8;
Vertebrae: 25. The head of juveniles and young adults may have a large dark wedge-like spot above and behind orbits; black peritoneum; branchial cavity with black lining. Slender caudal peduncle. Head with ground color; irregular dark blotch on operculum. Body tan to dark brownish black. The dark band and stripe become less distinct in bigger specimens. Fins dark-colored (generally black).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea and W.B. Scott, 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. (20):183 p. (Ref. 3814)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 17.7 - 27.1, mean 23.5 (based on 113 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00891 (0.00425 - 0.01868), b=3.07 (2.90 - 3.24), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.58 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (26 of 100) .