Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Tetraodontiformes
(Puffers and filefishes) > Tetraodontidae
(Puffers) > Tetraodontinae
Etymology: Sphoeroides: Greek, sphaira = ball + Greek, suffix, oides = similar to (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Müller & Troschel.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; depth range 50 - 480 m (Ref. 33352), usually 50 - 250 m (Ref. 10985). Subtropical; 61°N - 51°S, 99°E - 149°E
Circumglobal in tropical and temperate seas.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26350); common length : 26.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 47377)
Inhabit sandy, muddy and rocky bottoms (Ref. 2683). Young are pelagic (Ref. 7251). Feed mainly on squid. In southeast Brazil captured between 50 and 145 m (Ref. 47377).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Schneider, W., 1990. FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Field guide to the commercial marine resources of the Gulf of Guinea. Prepared and published with the support of the FAO Regional Office for Africa. Rome: FAO. 268 p. (Ref. 2683)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 11.9 - 27.5, mean 19.4 (based on 1869 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02455 (0.01428 - 0.04219), b=2.87 (2.72 - 3.02), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.73 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100) .