Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Cynoglossidae
(Tonguefishes) > Symphurinae
Etymology: Symphurus: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Robins & Randall.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 3 - 39 m (Ref. 26268), usually 6 - 30 m (Ref. 26268). Tropical; 30°N - 9°N
Western Atlantic: Florida, USA and Bahamas to Curaçao and Colombia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 5.1 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 56 - 61. Body pale with six to ten large dark blotches which are variously positioned in different individuals but frequently at the periphery of the body; upper and lower blotches are generally in vertical alignment, the last pair often confluent; scattered small dark spots on head and body (Ref. 13442).
Inhabits bays and shallow coastal waters.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Munroe, T.A., 1998. Systematics and ecology of tonguefishes of the genus Symphurus (Cynoglossidae: Pleuronectiformes) from the western Atlantic Ocean. Fish. Bull. 96(1):1-182. (Ref. 26268)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.6 - 28, mean 27.1 (based on 130 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01202 (0.00574 - 0.02520), b=3.06 (2.87 - 3.25), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.4 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .