Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Sciaenidae
(Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Menticirrhus: Latin, mentum = beard, chin + Latin, cirrus = curly.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 10 - ? m. Subtropical; 38°N - 33°S
Western Atlantic: Virginia, USA and the continental coast of the Gulf of Mexico to Rio Grande del Sur, Brazil.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 23.0, range 20 - ? cm
Max length : 48.3 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3702); max. published weight: 1.4 kg (Ref. 40637)
Grayish brown above, shading to silvery below, no prominent bars. Lower jaw has single, stout, peg-like barbel with pore at tip. Scales on belly smaller than those on side (Ref. 26938).
Occurs usually in coastal waters over sandy and muddy bottoms; juveniles are abundant in the surf zone. Sometimes enters estuaries. Feeds mainly on worms and crustaceans. Excellent food fish (Ref. 26938).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 22.5 - 27.7, mean 24.9 (based on 288 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5020 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00832 (0.00513 - 0.01348), b=3.04 (2.91 - 3.17), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.6 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming tm <4).
Prior r = 0.53, 95% CL = 0.35 - 0.80, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100) .