Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Kyphosidae
(Sea chubs) > Kyphosinae
Etymology: Kyphosus: Greek, kyphos = bent (Ref. 45335).
This species is synonym of Kyphosus vaigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825) according to Knudsen et al. (2013: Ref. 95491). The species page will be removed if proven to be not valid; please send references.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; depth range 1 - 12 m (Ref. 5227). Subtropical
Eastern Pacific: normally occurs from Baja California, Mexico to Peru, but have been taken in the artificially warmed waters off the Encina Power Plant in San Diego, California, USA, far outside normal range.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763)
Body oval, somewhat elongated, and compressed (depth contained less than 2.0 times in standard length); head and mouth small; teeth highly characteristic, forming a single anterior row in each jaw, incisiform and somewhat lanceolate in shape, resembling the head of a golf club, their roots compressed and horizontally set, forming a striated plate inside the mouth; vomer toothed; dorsal fin with 14 soft rays; lateral line scales 76 to 80; first ray of anal fin shorter than subsequent rays; body entirely dark gray, with longitudinal golden yellow stripes on flanks (Ref. 55763).
Swim in slightly polarized schools; occasionally solitary or occur in small groups (Ref. 5227). Juveniles are commonly encountered under floating objects in front of the Central American coast.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Knudsen, S.W. and K.D. Clements, 2013. Revision of the fish family Kyphosidae (Teleostei: Perciformes). Zootaxa 3751(1):001-101. (Ref. 95491)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 20 - 29.1, mean 25.4 (based on 276 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01820 (0.00741 - 0.04467), b=3.03 (2.82 - 3.24), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.00 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (41 of 100) .