Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 1 - 100 m (Ref. 5217). Tropical; 38°N - 7°S, 98°W - 34°W
Western Atlantic: Virginia, USA and northern Gulf of Mexico to at least northern South America.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 29.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); max. published weight: 10.70 g (Ref. 118626)
soft rays: 32 - 33. Branchiostegal photophore series restricted mid-ventral, with deep U-shaped apex anteriorly; margin of soft dorsal fin membranes with black blotches, black margin intermittent (Ref. 13608).
Inhabits mud or sand bottoms (Ref. 5217). Most common on rather shallow offshore banks, such as commercial shrimp grounds; less common inshore.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.2 - 27.9, mean 26 (based on 484 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00525 (0.00238 - 0.01156), b=3.15 (2.97 - 3.33), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100) .