Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Aulopiformes
(Grinners) > Chlorophthalmidae
Etymology: Parasudis: Greek, para = side, in the side + Latin, sudis = esox, fish of the Rhine, cited by Plinius 9.15; it also means "stake" (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Goode & Bean.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range ? - 479 m (Ref. 47377), usually 133 - 181 m (Ref. 13608). Subtropical; 44°N - 7°N
Western Atlantic: southern New England, USA to the northern coast of Brazil, north of the Amazon. Northwest Atlantic: Canada (Ref. 5951).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); common length : 22.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. )
Feed on fishes and sometimes sepia (Ref. 47377).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 6.6 - 22.9, mean 18 (based on 38 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.73 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (13 of 100) .