Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Soleidae
Etymology: Solea: Latin, solea = sandal (shoe); refered to the flat shape of the fish (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Randall & McCarthy.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 1 - 7 m (Ref. 10654). Tropical
Western Indian Ocean: Persian Gulf, Saudi Arabia, Half Moon Bay (near Dhahran).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 12.3 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 11441)
Collected from silty sand with sparse seagrass area.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Randall, J.E. and L.J. McCarthy, 1989. Solea stanalandi, a new sole from the Persian Gulf. Jap. J. Ichthyol. 36(2):196-199. (Ref. 10654)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 26.5 - 29.1, mean 27.6 (based on 131 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5020 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01072 (0.00498 - 0.02308), b=3.07 (2.89 - 3.25), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.4 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (21 of 100) .