Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Microdesmidae
(Wormfishes) > Ptereleotrinae
Etymology: Parioglossus: Greek, pareia = jaw + Greek, glossa = tongue (Ref. 45335). More on author: Herre.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated. Tropical; 30°N - 20°S
Indo-West Pacific: Arabian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman (Ref. 11441) to Fiji, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to Indonesia. Recently recorded from Tonga (Ref. 53797).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 3.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48637)
Inhabits mangrove swamps and inlet waters (Ref. 559); shallow coastal waters with mud, sand, or rock bottoms (Ref. 1602). Forms aggregations near surface (Ref. 90102).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 26.4 - 29.3, mean 28.5 (based on 3075 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm Total Length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.4 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months ().
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .