Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Serranidae
(Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Grammistinae
Etymology: Belonoperca: Greek, belone = needle; any fish with sharp pointed snout; also Pierre Belon, 1517-64, French zoologist born in Le Mans. Professor at the College de France, author of " La nature et diversité des poissons", 1551 + Greek, perke = perch (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Fowler & Bean.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 4 - 50 m (Ref. 9710). Tropical; 30°N - 23°S
Indo-Pacific: East Africa to Samoa, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to New Caledonia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710)
Occurs in steep slopes of coral rich areas. Usually hovers in mid water in caves (Ref. 9710). Nocturnal species (Ref. 4326). Secretive and solitary (Ref. 37816). Feeds on small fishes and crustaceans (Ref. 89972). Easily missed and normally the yellow spot is noticed first (Ref. 48635). Produces the skin toxin grammistin.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Randall, J.E., G.R. Allen and R.C. Steene, 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 506 p. (Ref. 2334)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.8 - 28.8, mean 27.6 (based on 426 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00513 (0.00205 - 0.01282), b=3.13 (2.91 - 3.35), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.67 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (22 of 100) .