Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 3 - 10 m (Ref. 7251). Subtropical
Western Atlantic: southern Florida, Bay of Campeche, Greater Antilles and the Virgin Islands. Including Antilles (Ref. 26938).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26340); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3702)
(total): 10 - 11;
soft rays: 7 - 8. A distinctive bluish grey in life, with scattered dark spots on back and upper sides. Longitudinal stripes below lateral line. Mouth subterminal, slightly oblique. Chin without barbel but with 5 mental pores. Preopercle margin finely serrate without strong spines. Gas bladder with 2 chambers; anterior one yoke-shaped, without appendages, posterior chamber, carrot-shaped. Lapillus enlarged, more than half size of sagitta (Ref 51721).
Mostly restricted to clear, sheltered, shore waters with luxuriant plant growth, usually from 3-10 m depth. Feeds mainly on crustaceans.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 26.7 - 28.2, mean 27.6 (based on 488 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01995 (0.00906 - 0.04395), b=3.01 (2.83 - 3.19), in cm Total Length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.55 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (21 of 100) .