Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 5 m (Ref. 86997), usually 0 - 2 m (Ref. 40849). Tropical; 28°N - 15°S, 78°W - 14°W
Western Atlantic: West Indies to Brazil. Southeast Atlantic: Ascension Island.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 23 - ? cm
Max length : 34.3 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 116955)
Inhabit coastal waters (Ref. 5217). Adults are found in shallow depth near sand; juveniles often in rockpools (Ref. 86997). Oviparous, eggs are pelagic and non-adhesive (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Thomson, J.M., 1978. Mugilidae. In W. Fischer (ed.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Central Atlantic (Fishing Area 31). Vol. 3. [pag. var.]. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3791)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 26.9 - 28.1, mean 27.4 (based on 216 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00574 - 0.01742), b=2.94 (2.79 - 3.09), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.00 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (35 of 100) .