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Sciaenops ocellatus (Linnaeus, 1766)

Red drum
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
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Sciaenops ocellatus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Sciaenops ocellatus (Red drum)
Sciaenops ocellatus
Picture by Lovshin, L.

United States (contiguous states) country information

Common names: Channel bass, Drum, Red drum
Occurrence: native
Salinity: brackish
Abundance: | Ref:
Importance: | Ref:
Aquaculture: | Ref:
Regulations: protected | Ref:
Uses: no uses
Comments: Regulators have largely reserved the species for recreational fishing (Ref. 9988). Presently farmed in Texas (Ref. 9988).
National Checklist:
Country Information:
National Fisheries Authority:
Occurrences: Occurrences Point map
Main Ref: Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986
National Database:

Common names from other countries

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Sciaenidae (Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Sciaenops: Greek, skiaina, skion = a fish, red mullet + Greek, ops = appearance (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; brackish; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 10 - ? m (Ref. 9988).   Subtropical; 43°N - 0°S

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: Massachusetts in USA to northern Mexico, including southern Florida, USA.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 86.3, range 55 - 80.3 cm
Max length : 155 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3702); common length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3702); max. published weight: 45.0 kg (Ref. 9988); max. reported age: 50 years (Ref. 32563)

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Occurs usually over sand and sandy mud bottoms in coastal waters and estuaries. Abundant in surf zone. Feeds mainly on crustaceans, mollusks and fishes. Utilized fresh and frozen; can be pan-fried, broiled and baked (Ref. 9988).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)

  Least Concern (LC) ; Date assessed: 01 December 2009

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless (Ref. 9988)

Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums
FAO(Aquaculture: production, species profile; fisheries: production; publication : search) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

More information

Common names
Egg development
Aquaculture profile
Allele frequencies
Mass conversion
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Swim. type
Gill area


Special reports

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Internet sources

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 15.5 - 27.3, mean 24.2 (based on 180 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 1.0000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00871 (0.00540 - 0.01405), b=3.07 (2.94 - 3.20), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.7   ±0.57 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.27; tmax=7; Fec~1 million).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (43 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   High.