|Geography and Climate
Finland is located in Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia. Area comparatively slightly smaller than Montana. Total
land boundary is 2,628 km, border countries are Norway 729 km, Sweden 586 km, Russia 1,313 km.
Finland has a cold temperate climate; potentially subarctic, but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes. Terrain consists of mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and low hills.
Elevation extreme has a lowest point in Baltic Sea 0 m and highest point in Haltiatunturi 1,328 m.
Natural resources are timber, copper, zinc, iron ore, silver. Land use: arable land: 8%, permanent crops: NA%, permanent pastures: 0%, forests and woodland: 76%, other: 16% (1993 est.). Irrigated land: 640 sq km (1993 est.)
Environment—current issues: air pollution from manufacturing and power plants contributing to acid rain; water pollution from industrial wastes, agricultural chemicals; habitat loss threatens wildlife populations.
Geography—note: long boundary with Russia; Helsinki is northernmost national capital on European continent; population concentrated on small southwestern coastal plain.
Ref. Anonymous, 1999