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Thymallus thymallus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Grayling
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Native range
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Thymallus thymallus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Classification / Names Noms communs | Synonymes | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinoptérygiens (poissons à nageoires rayonnées) > Salmoniformes (Salmons) > Salmonidae (Salmonids) > Thymallinae
Etymology: Thymallus: Greek, thymallos, -ou = a kind of fish similar to salmon (Ref. 45335);  thymallus: The name 'thymallus' could come from the thyme taste of the flesh of this fish (Ref. 30578).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Écologie

; eau douce; saumtre benthoplagique; pH range: 7.0 - 7.5; dH range: 20 - ?; non migrateur; profondeur 15 - ? m (Ref. 30578).   Temperate; 6°C - 18°C (Ref. 2059); 70°N - 42°N, 6°W - 66°E

Distribution Pays | Zones FAO | Écosystèmes | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Europe: Barent Sea basin west of Urals, Caspian, Black, Baltic, White and North Sea basins, Atlantic westward to Loire drainage; Rhône drainage; northern Adriatic basin east to Soca drainage. Introduced over most of southern and central Finland. Appendix III of the Bern Convention (protected fauna).

Length at first maturity / Taille / Poids / Âge

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL mâle / non sexé; (Ref. 556); common length : 30.0 cm TL mâle / non sexé; (Ref. 556); poids max. publié: 6.7 kg (Ref. 6368); âge max. reporté: 14 années (Ref. 556)

Description synthétique Morphologie | Morphométrie

Épines dorsales (Total): 5 - 8; Rayons mous dorsaux (Total): 12-17; Épines anales 3-4; Rayons mous anaux: 9 - 10; Vertèbres: 57 - 61. Distinguished from Thymallus arcticus by the following unique characters: maxillary usually reaching anterior margin of eye; pelvic fin grey, lacking red stripes; body without red spots; dorsal fin greyish, with parallel rows of round dark spots; gill rakers 19-30, averaging about 24-26 (Ref. 59043). Caudal fin with 19 to 21 rays (Ref. 2196).

Biologie     Glossaire (ex. epibenthic)

Inhabits submontane reaches of rivers with a hard sand or stone bottom and well oxygenated, cold and fast-flowing water (Ref. 59043). Prefers running, well-oxygenated waters of rivers (Ref. 30578). In Scandinavia, it occurs in clear lakes and freshened part of northern Baltic basin. Usually lives in hollows behind boulders and shaded water under overhanging vegetation (Ref. 59043). Gregarious, forms schools (Ref. 2196). Feeds mainly on insects (Ref. 9696), nymphs, small worms and crustaceans (Ref. 30578). Breeds in shallow stretches, usually 20-40 cm deep, or riffles, with moderate current of about 0.5 m/s and clean gravel bottom (Ref. 59043). Can be captured with natural bait (insect larvae) or with artificial fly. Very sensitive to pollution (Ref. 30578).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturité | Reproduction | Frai | Œufs | Fécondité | Larves

Référence principale Upload your references | Références | Coordinateur | Collaborateurs

Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)

Statut dans la liste rouge de l'IUCN (Ref. 119314)

  Préoccupation mineure (LC) ; Date assessed: 05 March 2010

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Menace pour l'homme

  Harmless





Utilisations par l'homme

Pêcheries: commercial; Aquaculture: commercial; pêche sportive: oui; Aquarium: Aquariums publics
FAO(Aquaculture: production; pêcheries: production; publication : search) | FishSource |

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Noms communs
Synonymes
Métabolisme
Prédateurs
Écotoxicologie
Reproduction
Maturité
Frai
Rassemblement de ponte
Fécondité
Œufs
Développement de l'œuf
Taille/Âge
Croissance
Longueur-poids
Longueur-longueur
Fréquences de longueurs
Morphométrie
Morphologie
Larves
Dynamique des populations larvaires
Recrutement
Abondance
Références
Aquaculture
Profil d'aquaculture
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Fréquences alléliques
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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5001   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00741 (0.00431 - 0.01274), b=3.05 (2.90 - 3.20), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
Niveau trophique (Ref. 69278):  3.1   ±0.42 se; Based on food items.
Résilience (Ref. 69278):  Milieu, temps minimum de doublement de population : 1,4 à 4,4 années (K=0.12-0.26; tm=2-6; tmax=14).
Vulnérabilité (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (41 of 100) .
Catégorie de prix (Ref. 80766):   Very high.