分類 / Names
俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚)
(Perch-likes) 鱸形目 (Perch-likes)
(Perches) 鱸科 (Perches)
Etymology: Gymnocephalus: Greek, gymnos = naked + Greek, kephale = head (Ref. 45335); acerina: acerina is a noun. More on author: Gmelin.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; 淡水 居於水底的. 溫帶; 10°C - 24°C (Ref. 12468); 53°N - 44°N, 25°E - 27°E
Europe: basins of northern Black Sea and Sea of Azov in Dniester, South Bug, Dniepr, Don rivers and Kuban drainages; in Dniepr up to Belarus. Rare in most of its range.
歐洲: 第聶伯河，南方人蟲，聶伯河的流域, 北方 Donets 與頓河, 以及在黑海的北方支流中.(參考文獻 4537)
Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡
Maturity: Lm ?, range 12 - 16 cm
Max length : 21.0 cm SL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 59043)
型態特徵 | 形態測量圖
背棘 (總數): 17 - 19. Distinguished uniquely from its congeners by having roundish dark spots on body, mostly in 3 rows, first below dorsal base, and 50-55 + 4-5 scales along lateral line. Can be further separated from other species of the genus by having 17-19 dorsal spines (Ref. 59043).
Found in flowing waters and lakes with clear water. Also inhabits rapids during summer. Occurs over sand and gravel bottom but prefers hard compact sand. Usually crepuscular but feeds also during daytime. Preys predominantly on benthic invertebrates (crustaceans, insect larvae, molluscs), rarely on fish. Forms small schools. In September, starts forming large schools and moves to deeper places and remains inactive until ice melts. Does not undertake long distance migrations. Spawns in small schools river stretches with heavy current and sand or gravel bottom (Ref.59043).
Life cycle and mating behavior
成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | 卵 | 孕卵數 | 仔魚
"Female lays slightly sticky eggs in several portions: first at 6-8°C, second at 12-14°C. Eggs hatch in 6-8 days at 14-16°C. Newly hatched larvae first lie on bottom; at 9 days (when pectorals are developed), they actively move to middle water layers and drift downstream. At 12 days (6.5mm) they start active feeding on small invertebrates in shallow shoreline habitats" (Ref. 59043).歐洲: 第聶伯河，南方人蟲，聶伯河的流域, 北方 Donets 與頓河, 以及在黑海的北方支流中.(參考文獻 4537)
Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
合作者照片Stamps, Coins Misc.聲音神經毒速度泳型鰓區Otoliths腦重體重比眼睛色素
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01096 (0.00487 - 0.02471), b=3.04 (2.85 - 3.23), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
營養階層 (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.53 se; Based on food items.
回復力 (Ref. 120179
): 中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100) .