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Acanthostracion quadricornis (Linnaeus, 1758)

Scrawled cowfish
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
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Acanthostracion quadricornis   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Acanthostracion quadricornis (Scrawled cowfish)
Acanthostracion quadricornis
Picture by Pialek, L.

Classification / Names Populärnamn | synonymer | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (strålfeniga fiskar) > Tetraodontiformes (Puffers and filefishes) > Ostraciidae (Boxfishes)
Etymology: Acanthostracion: Greek, akantha = thorn + Greek, ostrakon = shell (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ekologi

; marina revassocierade; djupintervall 1 - 80 m (Ref. 26938), usually 10 - 30 m (Ref. 40849).   Subtropical; 43°N - 37°S, 98°W - 26°E

Utbredning Länder | FAO områden | Ekosystem | Förekomster | Point map | Utplanteringar | Faunafri

Atlantic Ocean: in tropical and temperate waters (Ref. 3696). Western Atlantic: Massachusetts (USA), Bermuda, and northern Gulf of Mexico to southeastern Brazil. Reported from tip of South Africa.

Length at first maturity / Size / Vikt / Age

Maturity: Lm 22.2, range 17 - ? cm
Max length : 55.0 cm TL hane/ej könsbestämd; (Ref. 6937); common length : 20.0 cm TL hane/ej könsbestämd; (Ref. 3696)

Short description Morfologi | Morfometri

Taggstrålar i ryggfenan (totalt): 0; Mjukstrålar i ryggfenan (totalt): 10; Taggstrålar i analfenan 0; Mjukstrålar i analfenan: 10. Dark markings on head and body; parallel bands on cheek. Pair of prominent spines projecting from in front of eyes suggests cow horns. Second pair of spines at lower rear corners of cuirass (Ref. 26938). Body deep, covered with hexagonal dermal plates (Ref. 37521).

Biologi     Ordlista (t.ex. epibenthic)

Found in shallow water down to about 80 m, mainly in seagrass beds (Ref. 3696). Feeds on sessile invertebrates such as tunicates, gorgonians and anemones, as well as on slow-moving crustaceans, sponges (Ref. 3696), hermit crabs and marine plants (Ref. 13442). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Considered an excellent food fish; marketed fresh (Ref. 3696).

Life cycle and mating behavior Könsmognad | Reproduktion | Lek | Ägg | Fecundity | Larver

Main reference Upload your references | referenser | Koordinator : Matsuura, Keiichi | Medarbetare

Smith, M.M., 1986. Ostraciidae. p. 890-893. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 3141)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)

  Least Concern (LC) ; Date assessed: 07 June 2011

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30303)





Human uses

Fiskeri: mindre kommeriell; Akvarium: Kommersiell
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource |

Ytterligare information

Länder
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Stocks
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synonymer
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Ägg
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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 22.3 - 28, mean 25.4 (based on 458 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5625   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.04074 (0.02370 - 0.07002), b=2.70 (2.54 - 2.86), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
Trofisk nivå (Ref. 69278):  2.7   ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies.
Resiliens (Ref. 69278):  Hög, lägsta populationsfördubblingstid mindre än 15 månader (Fec = 112,536).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (32 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   High.