Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rhinopristiformes
(Shovelnose rays) > Rhinobatidae
(Guitarfishes) > Rhinobatinae
Etymology: Trygonorrhina: Greek, trygon = a sting ray + Greek, rhinos = nose (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 180 m (Ref. 12951). Subtropical; 28°S - 38°S, 149°E - 155°E (Ref. 114953)
Southwest Pacific: endemic to eastern Australia.
65Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 100.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 126 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6871); max. published weight: 6.7 kg (Ref. 6870)
Common near the coast (Ref. 6871), on sandy bottoms and seagrass areas, often near rocky reefs (Ref. 12951). Ranges from the intertidal to 180 m (Ref. 12951). Mainly feeds on crabs and shrimps (Ref. 114953). Ovoviviparous with golden egg capsules, each with up to 3 embryos (Ref. 12951). Produces up to 2-3 pups. Length size seldom exceeds 110 cm TL; birth size at ca. 25 cm TL (Ref. 114953). The flesh is good to eat, although only a small quantity is sold in seafood outlets (Ref. 6871).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).
Last, P.R. and J.D. Stevens, 1994. Sharks and rays of Australia. CSIRO, Australia. 513 p. (Ref. 6871)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 17.3 - 22.5, mean 20.7 (based on 18 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00617 (0.00318 - 0.01197), b=2.99 (2.81 - 3.17), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.5 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (62 of 100) .