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Rutilus frisii (Nordmann, 1840)

Kutum
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Rutilus frisii
Male picture by Afzali, A.

分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 辐鳍鱼纲 (条鳍鱼) > Cypriniformes (Carps) > Cyprinidae (Minnows or carps) > Leuciscinae
Etymology: Rutilus: Latin, rutilus = reddish (Ref. 45335).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 淡水; 半咸淡水 底中水层性; 深度上下限 50 - ? m.   溫帶; 56°N - 36°N, 22°E - 54°E

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Eurasia: Black and Azov Sea basins, absent from Danube and Kuban drainages; landloacked populations in Don, resulting from dam construction; Caspian basin from Terek to Atrek drainages, very rarely in northern Caspian basin (Volga [earlier up to Perm], Ural); Lake Iznik in Sea of Marmara basin in Anatolia.
歐亞大陸: 在黑海北海岸上的河川與里海盆地。 在伯恩公約的附錄 3 中 (受保育的動物群).(參考文獻 6111) Rutilus frisii kutum Kamenskii,1901 辨識特徵為 , 一些在裡海作為一個亞種.(參考文獻 26334,39702)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm ?, range 43 - 50 cm
Max length : 70.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 556); common length : 60.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 6111); 最大体重: 8.0 kg (Ref. 59043); 最大年龄: 12 年 (Ref. 6111)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背的软条 (总数): 11-12; 臀鳍软条: 12 - 14. Can be diagnosed from its congeners in Black and Caspian Sea basins by having the following characters: body almost cylindrical, depth 19-26% SL; 53-64 + 3 scales on lateral line; abdomen posterior to pelvic rounded; snout rounded, stout; mouth subterminal; dorsal fin with 9-10½ branched rays; iris and fins grey or slightly yellowish; breeding males with large, scattered tubercles on top and side of head (Ref. 59043).

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

A semi-anadromous species which occurs in large brackish estuaries and their large, freshened plume waters, coastal lakes connected to rivers and lowland stretches of large rivers. Can tolerate salinities up to 7-12 ppt. Landlocked populations live in lakes or reservoirs. Larvae and early juveniles take zooplankton, algae and insect larvae as food while adults feed on molluscs, Rhithropanopeus crabs and other benthic invertebrates. Feeding ceases while migrating, spawning and overwintering. Breeds in small rivers or streams with heavy current on gravel bottom. Begins migration to rivers in second half of October (Black Sea, rarely in Caspian Sea). When rivers are covered with ice, spawning migration stops and continues when ice breaks up or even under ice in February-April. Spawns in April-May. Adults migrate back to estuaries to forage immediately after spawning. Juveniles move to estuaries during first summer in August. Landlocked populations undertake migration in springs from lakes or reservoirs or middle stretches of rivers to tributaries or upper reaches (Ref. 59043).

在深水中生活在小群鱼群, 但是在支流的浅水区中产卵在湖中觅食四月到五月时。 卵在杂草之中生产与在砾石之上, 而且在大约 10 天中孵化。 在 3-5 年中性成熟。 黑海的半淡咸水族群是溯河洄游产卵的。

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Lays eggs which adhere to rocks and gravel, rarely on submerged plants. Eggs hatch in 10-16 days at 12-19°C (Ref. 59043).歐亞大陸: 在黑海北海岸上的河川與里海盆地。 在伯恩公約的附錄 3 中 (受保育的動物群).(參考文獻 6111) Rutilus frisii kutum Kamenskii,1901 辨識特徵為 , 一些在裡海作為一個亞種.(參考文獻 26334,39702)

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 | 合作者

Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 120744)

  最不相关 (LC) ; Date assessed: 01 January 2008

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  无害处的





人类利用

渔业: 商业性; 养殖: 商业性
FAO(渔业: 产生; publication : search) | FishSource |

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俗名
同种异名
新陈代谢
捕食者
生态毒物学
繁殖
成熟度
产卵场
产卵群集
孕卵数

卵的发育
年龄范围
成长
体长-体重
体长-体长
体长-频率
形态测量图
型态特徵
仔鱼
稚鱼动力学
入添量
丰度
参考文献
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养殖信息
品种
遗传学
基因序列
遗传率
疾病
加工
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Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5020   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00871 (0.00537 - 0.01412), b=3.07 (2.93 - 3.21), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  3.6   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 2.7 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  低的, 最小族群倍增时间4.5 - 14 年 (tmax=12; tm=3-5).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.