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Pastinachus sephen (Forsskål, 1775)

Cowtail stingray
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
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Pastinachus sephen   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Pastinachus sephen (Cowtail stingray)
Pastinachus sephen
Picture by Banks, I.

Classificação / Names Nomes comuns | Sinónimos | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (tubarões e raias) (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes (Stingrays) > Dasyatidae (Stingrays)
Etymology: Pastinachus: Latin, pastinaca = a sting ray (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Forsskål.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecologia

; marinhas; Água doce; estuarina associadas(os) a recifes; anfídromo (Ref. 51243); intervalo de profundidade 0 - 60 m (Ref. 6871).   Tropical; 32°N - 37°S, 36°E - 168°E

Distribuição Países | Áreas FAO | Ecossistemas | Ocorrências | Point map | Introduções | Faunafri

Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea, Persian Gulf and South Africa to Micronesia, north to Japan, south to Melanesia and the Arafura Sea (Ref. 9819).

Length at first maturity / Tamanho / Peso / Idade

Maturity: Lm ?, range 96 - 100 cm
Max length : 183 cm WD macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 37816); common length : 65.0 cm WD macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 27550)

Descrição breve Morfologia | Morfometria

Espinhos dorsais (total): 0; Raios dorsais moles (total): 0. A large, plain, dark stingray with an angular snout and pectoral disc; tail long and broad-based, less than twice body length, and with no upper caudal finfold but with high lower caudal finfold- 2 to 3 times depth of tail but not reaching tail tip; no large thorns; 1 or 2 long stings on tail, further behind tail base than in most stingrays; unique hexagonal, high-crowned teeth (Ref. 5578). Dark brown or black dorsally without conspicuous markings, white ventrally (Ref. 5578). Tail black (Ref. 3263).

Biologia     Glossário (ex. epibenthic)

Found in lagoons, reef flats, and reef faces (Ref. 12951). Also in rivers far from the sea (Ref. 5578). Feeds on bony fishes, worms, shrimp, and crabs (Ref. 12951). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Adults are sometimes accompanied by remoras or members of the trevally family (Ref. 6871). Size at birth about 18 cm WD or larger (Ref. 6871). Flesh utilized as food and skin used for polishing wood (Ref. 4832). Possibly caught by sports anglers (Ref. 5578). Recently there is a targeted fishery on this species for its skin, which is used as 'shagreen' in fashion accessories, from wallets to fancy pens; as a result, the species is in danger of disappearance (IHT 26.11.2005, p.5). Maximum length about 300 cm TL (Ref. 30573).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturidade | Reprodução | Desova | Ovos | Fecundidade | Larvas

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). Size at birth ~ 18 cm WD (Ref.58048).

Referência principal Upload your references | Referências | Coordenador : McEachran, John | Colaboradores

Last, P.R. and J.D. Stevens, 1994. Sharks and rays of Australia. CSIRO, Australia. 513 p. (Ref. 6871)

Categoria na Lista Vermelha da IUCN (Ref. 120744)

  Quase ameaçada (NT) (A2d+3d); Date assessed: 07 February 2017

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Ameaça para o homem

  Venomous





Utilização humana

Pescarias: pouco comercial; Aquário: Espécies comerciais
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource |

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 24.7 - 29.1, mean 28.2 (based on 1694 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5312   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Nível Trófico (Ref. 69278):  3.7   ±0.60 se; Based on food items.
Resiliência (Ref. 69278):  Muito baixo, tempo mínimo de duplicação da população maior que 14 anos (Assuming Fec<10).
Vulnerabilidade (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (90 of 100) .
Categoria de preço (Ref. 80766):   Low.