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Pastinachus sephen (Forsskål, 1775)

Cowtail stingray
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
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Pastinachus sephen   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Pastinachus sephen (Cowtail stingray)
Pastinachus sephen
Picture by Banks, I.

Classification / Names Nomi Comuni | Sinonimi | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchi (squali e razze) (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes (Stingrays) > Dasyatidae (Stingrays)
Etymology: Pastinachus: Latin, pastinaca = a sting ray (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Forsskål.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecologia

; marino; acqua dolce; salmastro associati a barriera corallina; amfidromo (Ref. 51243); distribuzione batimetrica 0 - 60 m (Ref. 6871).   Tropical; 32°N - 37°S, 36°E - 168°E

Distribuzione Stati | Aree FAO | Ecosystems | Presenze | Point map | Introduzioni | Faunafri

Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea, Persian Gulf and South Africa to Micronesia, north to Japan, south to Melanesia and the Arafura Sea (Ref. 9819).

Length at first maturity / Size / Peso / Age

Maturity: Lm ?, range 96 - 100 cm
Max length : 183 cm WD maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 37816); common length : 65.0 cm WD maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 27550)

Short description Morfologia | Morfometria

Spine dorsali (totale): 0; Raggi dorsali molli (totale): 0. A large, plain, dark stingray with an angular snout and pectoral disc; tail long and broad-based, less than twice body length, and with no upper caudal finfold but with high lower caudal finfold- 2 to 3 times depth of tail but not reaching tail tip; no large thorns; 1 or 2 long stings on tail, further behind tail base than in most stingrays; unique hexagonal, high-crowned teeth (Ref. 5578). Dark brown or black dorsally without conspicuous markings, white ventrally (Ref. 5578). Tail black (Ref. 3263).

Biologia     Glossario (es. epibenthic)

Found in lagoons, reef flats, and reef faces (Ref. 12951). Also in rivers far from the sea (Ref. 5578). Feeds on bony fishes, worms, shrimp, and crabs (Ref. 12951). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Adults are sometimes accompanied by remoras or members of the trevally family (Ref. 6871). Size at birth about 18 cm WD or larger (Ref. 6871). Flesh utilized as food and skin used for polishing wood (Ref. 4832). Possibly caught by sports anglers (Ref. 5578). Recently there is a targeted fishery on this species for its skin, which is used as 'shagreen' in fashion accessories, from wallets to fancy pens; as a result, the species is in danger of disappearance (IHT 26.11.2005, p.5). Maximum length about 300 cm TL (Ref. 30573).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturità | Riproduzione | Deposizione | Uova | Fecundity | Larve

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). Size at birth ~ 18 cm WD (Ref.58048).

Main reference Upload your references | Bibliografia | Coordinatore : McEachran, John | Collaboratori

Last, P.R. and J.D. Stevens, 1994. Sharks and rays of Australia. CSIRO, Australia. 513 p. (Ref. 6871)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)

  Near Threatened (NT) (A2d+3d); Date assessed: 07 February 2017

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Venomous





Human uses

Pesca: scarso interesse commerciale; Acquario: Commerciale
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource |

Informazioni ulteriori

Stati
Aree FAO
Ecosystems
Presenze
Introduzioni
Stocks
Ecologia
Dieta
Prede
Consumo di cibo
Razione
Nomi Comuni
Sinonimi
Metabolismo
Predatori
Ecotossicologia
Riproduzione
Maturità
Deposizione
Spawning aggregation
Fecundity
Uova
Egg development
Age/Size
Accrescimento
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morfometria
Morfologia
Larve
Dinamica popolazioni larvali
Reclutamento
Abbondanza
Bibliografia
Acquacoltura
Profilo di acquacoltura
Varietà
Genetica
Frequenze alleliche
Ereditarietà
Malattie
Elaborazione
Mass conversion
Collaboratori
Immagini
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Suoni
Ciguatera
Velocità
Modalità di nuoto
Area branchiale
Otoliths
Cervelli
Vista

Strumenti

Special reports

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 24.7 - 29.1, mean 28.2 (based on 1694 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5312   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.7   ±0.60 se; Based on food items.
Resilienza (Ref. 69278):  Molto basso, tempo minimo di raddoppiamento della popolazione più di 14 anni (Assuming Fec<10).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (90 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Low.