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Rhinoptera javanica Müller & Henle, 1841

Flapnose ray
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Rhinoptera javanica   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Rhinoptera javanica (Flapnose ray)
Rhinoptera javanica
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Classificatie / Names Populaire namen | Synoniemen | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Rhinopristiformes (Shovelnose rays) > Rhinopteridae (Cownose rays)
Etymology: Rhinoptera: Greek, rhinos = nose + Greek,pteron = fin, wing (Ref. 45335).  More on authors: Müller & Henle.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecologie

; marien; brakwater rifbewoner.   Tropical; 30°N - 15°S, 55°E - 135°E (Ref. 114953)

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Indo-West Pacific: Oman to the Philippines; north to Ryukyu Is.; south to eastern Indonesia.

Size / Gewicht / Leeftijd

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 165 cm WD mannelijk/geslacht niet bekend; (Ref. 114953); Maximaal gepubliceerd gewicht: 4.5 kg (Ref. 3965)

Korte beschrijving Morfologie | Morfometrie

Double-lobed snout and indented forehead; jaws usually with 7 rows of plate-like teeth; no caudal fin (Ref. 5578). Brown above, white below (Ref. 5578).

Biologie     Verklarende woordenlijst (b.v. epibenthic)

Found in bays, estuaries, and near coral reefs (Ref. 12951), over sand and mud bottoms (Ref. 9710). Usually solitary or in small aggregations (Ref. 114953). However, large schools with up to 500 individuals have been reported (Ref. 12951). Feeds on clams, oysters and crustaceans (Ref. 12951). Lives to over 2 years in captivity (Ref. 12951). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Edible (Ref. 30573). Caught mainly by gill net fisheries (Ref. 114953), occasionally by bottom trawl, demersal inshore gillnet and tangle net fisheries. Utilized for its meat (Ref. 58048).

Life cycle and mating behavior Geslachtsrijpheid | Voortplanting | Kuitschieten | Eieren | Fecundity | Larven

Males court by nipping the female's dorsum. Mating pair orient in a venter to venter position, and the male inserts one or both claspers. The pair usually rests on the substrate, with the female on top of the male. Mating lasts about 30 seconds (Ref. 12951) to 1 minute (Ref. 49562). Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Size at birth ~60 cm WD. One large pregnant female (~130 cm WD) contained a single late-term embryo 61 cm WD (Ref.58048).

Voornaamste referentie Upload your references | Referenties | Coördinator | Medewerkers

Last, P.R., W.T. White, M.R. de Carvalho, B. Séret, M.F.W. Stehmann and G.J.P. Naylor, 2016. Rays of the world. CSIRO Publishing, Comstock Publishing Associates. i-ix + 1-790. (Ref. 114953)

Status op de Rode Lijst van het IUCN (Ref. 120744)

  Kwetsbaar, zie IUCN Rode Lijst (VU) (A2d+3cd+4cd); Date assessed: 31 January 2006

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Gevaarlijk voor mensen

  Harmless (Ref. 12484)





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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 24.2 - 29.2, mean 28.4 (based on 3123 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5039   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01096 (0.00632 - 0.01902), b=2.94 (2.78 - 3.10), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.3   ±0.37 se; Based on food items.
Weerstandsvermogen (Ref. 120179):  zeer laag, minimale populatieverdubbelingstijd meer dan 14 jaar (Fec=1-2).
Kwetsbaarheid (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (46 of 100) .
Prijsklasse (Ref. 80766):   Medium.