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Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes, 1844)

Grass carp
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Ctenopharyngodon idella
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Classification / Names Tên thường gặp | Các synonym ( Các tên trùng) | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Lớp phụ (Subclass) cá vây tia > Cypriniformes (Carps) > Cyprinidae (Minnows or carps) > Squaliobarbinae
Etymology: Ctenopharyngodon: Greek, kteis, ktenos = comb + Greek, pharyngx = pharynx + greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335);  idella: Cteno=comb; pharynx=throat; odon=tooth (in reference to its comblike pharyngeal teeth); and idella: presumably derived from the Greek idios, distinctive or peculiar (Ref. 79012).  More on author: Valenciennes.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Sinh thái học

; Nước ngọt; Thuộc về nước lợ gần đáy; di cư trong nước ngọt (Ref. 51243); Mức độ sâu 0 - 30 m (Ref. 6898).   Subtropical; 0°C - 35°C (Ref. 52059); 50°N - 23°N (Ref. 48)

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Asia: Eastern China and Russia (Ref. 48) in eastern Siberia, Amur River system (Ref. 1441). Widely transported around the world (Ref. 7248). Persists only in Europe by stocking (Ref. 59043). Introductions often brought with it the parasitic tapeworm Bothriocephalus opsarichthydis (synonym of B. acheilognathi) (Ref. 12217). Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.

Length at first maturity / Bộ gần gũi / Khối lượng (Trọng lượng) / Age

Maturity: Lm ?, range 58 - 79.2 cm
Max length : 150 cm TL con đực/không giới tính; (Ref. 30578); common length : 10.7 cm SL con đực/không giới tính; (Ref. 35840); Khối lượng cực đại được công bố: 45.0 kg (Ref. 7248); Tuổi cực đại được báo cáo: 21 các năm (Ref. 48)

Short description Hình thái học | Sinh trắc học

Các tia vây lưng cứng (tổng cộng): 3; Các vây lưng mềm (tổng cộng): 7-8; Tia cứng vây hậu môn 3; Tia mềm vây hậu môn: 7 - 11. No barbels. Snout very short, its length less than or equal to eye diameter. Postorbital length more than half head length (Ref. 4967). 18 soft rays for caudal fin (Ref. 40476). Diagnosed from rather similar species Mylopharyngodon piceus by having the following characters: body olive to brassy green above, silvery white to yellow below; body cylindrical; pharyngeal teeth laterally compressed, serrated, with a groove along grinding surface, usually in two rows, 2,5-4,2 (Ref. 59043).

Sinh học     Tự điển (thí dụ epibenthic)

Adults occur in lakes, ponds, pools and backwaters of large rivers (Ref. 5723), preferring large, slow-flowing or standing water bodies with vegetation. Tolerant of a wide range of temperatures from 0° to 38°C, and salinities to as much as 10 ppt and oxygen levels down to 0.5 ppm. Feed on higher aquatic plants and submerged grasses; takes also detritus, insects and other invertebrates. One of the world's most important aquaculture species and also used for weed control in rivers, fish ponds and reservoirs (Ref. 9987). Spawn on riverbeds with very strong current (Ref. 30578). Utilized also fresh and eaten steamed, pan-fried, broiled and baked (Ref. 9987). Considered as a pest in most countries because of the damages made to submerged vegetation (Ref. 43281).

Life cycle and mating behavior Chín muồi sinh dục | Sự tái sinh sản | Đẻ trứng | Các trứng | Sự sinh sản | Ấu trùng

Spawns in gravel bottomed areas of rivers (Ref. 48). Eggs are pelagic and hatch while drifting downstream in 2-3 days (Ref. 59043).

Main reference Upload your references | Các tài liệu tham khảo | Người điều phối | Người cộng tác

Shireman, J.V. and C.R. Smith, 1983. Synopsis of biological data on the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1884). FAO Fish. Synop. No.135, 86 p. (Ref. 48)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)


CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Potential pest





Human uses

Các nghề cá: buôn bán nhỏ; Nuôi trồng thủy sản: Tính thương mại; cá để chơi: đúng
FAO(Nuôi trồng thủy sản: Sản xuất, species profile; Các nghề cá: Sản xuất; publication : search) | FishSource |

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Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 1.0000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01349 (0.01040 - 0.01750), b=2.98 (2.90 - 3.06), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Mức dinh dưỡng (Ref. 69278):  2.0   ±0.00 se; Based on food items.
Thích nghi nhanh (Ref. 120179):  thấp, thời gian nhân đôi của chủng quần tối thiểu là 4.5 - 14 năm (K=0.13-0.19; tm=2-10; tmax=21; Fec=50,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (65 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.