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Epinephelus retouti Bleeker, 1868

Red-tipped grouper
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Epinephelus retouti   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Epinephelus retouti (Red-tipped grouper)
Epinephelus retouti
Picture by Randall, J.E.

分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 辐鳍鱼纲 (条鳍鱼) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) 鱸形目 (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) 鮨科 (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Bleeker.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋 礁区鱼类; 深度上下限 20 - 220 m (Ref. 5222).   熱帶; 36°N - 27°S, 37°E - 143°W (Ref. 5222)

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Indo-Pacific: islands in tropical and subtropical waters from the western Indian Ocean to Jarvis Island (Line Islands, Kiribati) and French Polynesia (Ref. 4787), including Bassas da India (Mozambique Channel) (Ref. 5222).
印度-太平洋: 在熱帶與亞熱帶的水域從西印度洋到賈維斯島 (列島群島, 吉爾巴斯) 與法屬玻里尼西亞 (參考文獻 4787) 的島, 包括印度礁 (莫三比克海峽).(參考文獻 5222)

大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 5222); common length : 30.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 9137); 最大体重: 2.0 kg (Ref. 5222)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 11; 背的软条 (总数): 16-17; 臀棘 3; 臀鳍软条: 8. Similar to E. fasciatus, differing primarily by having straighter head profile and longer snout, red rather than black tips on spinous dorsal fin (Ref. 37816). Distinguished by the following characteristics: adults dull yellowish orange to brownish red, each scale on the dorsolateral part of the body with dark greenish grey spot; usually 5 faint dark bares on body, 2nd and 3rd bars extend onto the spinous dorsal fin where they are dark brown; dorsal fin greenish brown, soft rayed part darker than rest of the fin, outer triangular part of interspinous membranes dark red, set off from the rest of the fin by an orange-yellow stripe; dark greenish brown dorsal fin margin of caudal fin; dark red or brown line along base of dorsal fin; narrowly edged orbit, except anteriorly, with dark red; pale blue line adjacent to the red rim of the orbit and completely surrounding eye; body depth contained 2.5-3.1 times in SL; head length 2.4-2.6 times in SL; flat to slightly convex interorbital, dorsal head profile slightly convex; rounded preopercle, finely serrate; sinuous upper edge of operculum; snout length 3.5-3.9 times in HL; subequal anterior and posterior nostrils; maxilla reaches below rear half of eye; 3-4 rows of teeth on midlateral part of lower jaw; pair of short fixed canines at front of both jaws; numerous pyloric caeca (Ref. 89707).
类似 E. fasciatus, 主要差异为有较直的头部轮廓与较长的吻, 红色的而不是在刺状的背鳍上的黑色顶端.(参考文献 37816)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Adults are found in depths of 70 to 220 m on outer reef slopes; the young in depths of 20 to 40 m (Ref. 89707). Also caught with vertical longlines.

成鱼被发现于深度 70 到 220 公尺; 幼鱼在深度 20 到 40 公尺中。 也用垂直的延绳钓捕获。

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

印度-太平洋: 在熱帶與亞熱帶的水域從西印度洋到賈維斯島 (列島群島, 吉爾巴斯) 與法屬玻里尼西亞 (參考文獻 4787) 的島, 包括印度礁 (莫三比克海峽).(參考文獻 5222)

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 : Heemstra, Phillip C. | 合作者

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 120744)

  最不相关 (LC) ; Date assessed: 02 November 2017

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  无害处的





人类利用

渔业: 自给性渔业; 游钓鱼种: 是的
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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 20.8 - 28.1, mean 26.1 (based on 472 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00555 - 0.02374), b=3.04 (2.88 - 3.20), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  4.0   ±0.65 se; Based on food items.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (41 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.