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Epinephelus retouti Bleeker, 1868

Red-tipped grouper
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Epinephelus retouti   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Epinephelus retouti (Red-tipped grouper)
Epinephelus retouti
Picture by Randall, J.E.

分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) 鱸形目 (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) 鮨科 (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Bleeker.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋 礁區魚類; 深度上下限 20 - 220 m (Ref. 5222).   熱帶; 36°N - 27°S, 37°E - 143°W (Ref. 5222)

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: islands in tropical and subtropical waters from the western Indian Ocean to Jarvis Island (Line Islands, Kiribati) and French Polynesia (Ref. 4787), including Bassas da India (Mozambique Channel) (Ref. 5222).
印度-太平洋: 在熱帶與亞熱帶的水域從西印度洋到賈維斯島 (列島群島, 吉爾巴斯) 與法屬玻里尼西亞 (參考文獻 4787) 的島, 包括印度礁 (莫三比克海峽).(參考文獻 5222)

大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 5222); common length : 30.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 9137); 最大體重: 2.0 kg (Ref. 5222)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 11; 背的軟條 (總數): 16-17; 臀棘 3; 臀鰭軟條: 8. Similar to E. fasciatus, differing primarily by having straighter head profile and longer snout, red rather than black tips on spinous dorsal fin (Ref. 37816). Distinguished by the following characteristics: adults dull yellowish orange to brownish red, each scale on the dorsolateral part of the body with dark greenish grey spot; usually 5 faint dark bares on body, 2nd and 3rd bars extend onto the spinous dorsal fin where they are dark brown; dorsal fin greenish brown, soft rayed part darker than rest of the fin, outer triangular part of interspinous membranes dark red, set off from the rest of the fin by an orange-yellow stripe; dark greenish brown dorsal fin margin of caudal fin; dark red or brown line along base of dorsal fin; narrowly edged orbit, except anteriorly, with dark red; pale blue line adjacent to the red rim of the orbit and completely surrounding eye; body depth contained 2.5-3.1 times in SL; head length 2.4-2.6 times in SL; flat to slightly convex interorbital, dorsal head profile slightly convex; rounded preopercle, finely serrate; sinuous upper edge of operculum; snout length 3.5-3.9 times in HL; subequal anterior and posterior nostrils; maxilla reaches below rear half of eye; 3-4 rows of teeth on midlateral part of lower jaw; pair of short fixed canines at front of both jaws; numerous pyloric caeca (Ref. 89707).
類似 E. fasciatus, 主要差異為有較直的頭部輪廓與較長的吻, 紅色的而不是在刺狀的背鰭上的黑色頂端.(參考文獻 37816)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Adults are found in depths of 70 to 220 m on outer reef slopes; the young in depths of 20 to 40 m (Ref. 89707). Also caught with vertical longlines.

成魚被發現於深度 70 到 220 公尺; 幼魚在深度 20 到 40 公尺中。 也用垂直的延繩釣捕獲。

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

印度-太平洋: 在熱帶與亞熱帶的水域從西印度洋到賈維斯島 (列島群島, 吉爾巴斯) 與法屬玻里尼西亞 (參考文獻 4787) 的島, 包括印度礁 (莫三比克海峽).(參考文獻 5222)

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 : Heemstra, Phillip C. | 合作者

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 120744)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 02 November 2017

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  無害處的





人類使用

漁業: 自給性漁業; 游釣魚種: 是的
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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 20.8 - 28.1, mean 26.1 (based on 472 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00555 - 0.02374), b=3.04 (2.88 - 3.20), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  4.0   ±0.65 se; Based on food items.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (41 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.