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Epinephelus bruneus Bloch, 1793

Longtooth grouper
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Image of Epinephelus bruneus (Longtooth grouper)
Epinephelus bruneus
Juvenile picture by Chiang, S.

分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 辐鳍鱼纲 (条鳍鱼) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) 鱸形目 (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) 鮨科 (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Bloch.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋 礁区鱼类; 深度上下限 20 - 200 m (Ref. 5222).   熱帶; 38°N - 18°N, 108°E - 142°E (Ref. 5222)

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Northwest Pacific: Korea, Japan (north to Hegura-jima Island), China (south to Hong Kong and Hainan Island), and Taiwan.
西北太平洋: 韓國,日本 (北至舳倉島-宮古島) ,中國 (南至香港與海南島) 與台灣。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm ?, range 54 - ? cm
Max length : 136 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 89707); common length : 60.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 9137); 最大体重: 33.0 kg (Ref. 40637)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 11; 背的软条 (总数): 13-15; 臀棘 3; 臀鳍软条: 8. Distinguished by the following characteristics: adults dark greyish brown; body covered with small pale grey spots forming short horizontal lines and mottled pattern; lower margin of the anal fin and lower corner of the caudal fin with white edge; juveniles pale yellowish brown, body with 6 irregular oblique dark bars containing irregular pale spots; elongate body, depth 3.0-3.6 times in SL; head length 2.3-2.5 in SL; convex interorbital area; angular preopercle, serrae at angle distinctly enlarged; inconspicuous dorsal spine on opercle; convex upper edge of operculum; small and subequal posterior and anterior nostrils; maxilla reaching past vertical at rear edge of eye, tiny embedded scales on maxilla; absence of step on ventral edge of maxilla; 2 rows of well-developed canines on midlateral part of lower jaw; caudal fin rounded; mid-lateral body scales ctenoid, without auxiliary scales on body (Ref. 089707).

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Inhabits rocky reefs; also found on muddy grounds (Ref. 089707). Juveniles occur in shallow waters. Commercially cultured in Japan.

栖息于岩礁; 也发现于泥泞的地面。 稚鱼出现在浅水域。 商业地在日本养殖。

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

西北太平洋: 韓國,日本 (北至舳倉島-宮古島) ,中國 (南至香港與海南島) 與台灣。

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 : Heemstra, Phillip C. | 合作者

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 120744)

  数据缺失 (DD) ; Date assessed: 20 November 2016

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  无害处的





人类利用

渔业: 商业性; 养殖: 商业性; 游钓鱼种: 是的
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource |

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 17.7 - 23.7, mean 20.5 (based on 94 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00680 - 0.01938), b=3.07 (2.93 - 3.21), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  4.0   ±0.66 se; Based on food items.
回复力 (Ref. 69278):  非常低的, 最小族群倍增时间超过14 年 (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (75 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.