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Epinephelus bruneus Bloch, 1793

Longtooth grouper
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Image of Epinephelus bruneus (Longtooth grouper)
Epinephelus bruneus
Juvenile picture by Chiang, S.

Classification / Names Nomi Comuni | Sinonimi | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterigi (pesci con pinne raggiate) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Bloch.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecologia

; marino associati a barriera corallina; distribuzione batimetrica 20 - 200 m (Ref. 5222).   Tropical; 38°N - 18°N, 108°E - 142°E (Ref. 5222)

Distribuzione Stati | Aree FAO | Ecosystems | Presenze | Point map | Introduzioni | Faunafri

Northwest Pacific: Korea, Japan (north to Hegura-jima Island), China (south to Hong Kong and Hainan Island), and Taiwan.

Length at first maturity / Size / Peso / Age

Maturity: Lm ?, range 54 - ? cm
Max length : 136 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 89707); common length : 60.0 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 9137); peso massimo pubblicato: 33.0 kg (Ref. 40637)

Short description Morfologia | Morfometria

Spine dorsali (totale): 11; Raggi dorsali molli (totale): 13-15; Spine anali 3; Raggi anali molli: 8. Distinguished by the following characteristics: adults dark greyish brown; body covered with small pale grey spots forming short horizontal lines and mottled pattern; lower margin of the anal fin and lower corner of the caudal fin with white edge; juveniles pale yellowish brown, body with 6 irregular oblique dark bars containing irregular pale spots; elongate body, depth 3.0-3.6 times in SL; head length 2.3-2.5 in SL; convex interorbital area; angular preopercle, serrae at angle distinctly enlarged; inconspicuous dorsal spine on opercle; convex upper edge of operculum; small and subequal posterior and anterior nostrils; maxilla reaching past vertical at rear edge of eye, tiny embedded scales on maxilla; absence of step on ventral edge of maxilla; 2 rows of well-developed canines on midlateral part of lower jaw; caudal fin rounded; mid-lateral body scales ctenoid, without auxiliary scales on body (Ref. 089707).

Biologia     Glossario (es. epibenthic)

Inhabits rocky reefs; also found on muddy grounds (Ref. 089707). Juveniles occur in shallow waters. Commercially cultured in Japan.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturità | Riproduzione | Deposizione | Uova | Fecundity | Larve

Main reference Upload your references | Bibliografia | Coordinatore : Heemstra, Phillip C. | Collaboratori

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)

  Vulnerabile, vedi Lista Rossa IUCN (VU) (A2bd); Date assessed: 20 November 2016

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless





Human uses

Pesca: commerciale; Acquacoltura: commerciale; Pesce da pesca sportiva: si
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource |

Informazioni ulteriori

Stati
Aree FAO
Ecosystems
Presenze
Introduzioni
Stocks
Ecologia
Dieta
Prede
Consumo di cibo
Razione
Nomi Comuni
Sinonimi
Metabolismo
Predatori
Ecotossicologia
Riproduzione
Maturità
Deposizione
Spawning aggregation
Fecundity
Uova
Egg development
Age/Size
Accrescimento
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morfometria
Morfologia
Larve
Dinamica popolazioni larvali
Reclutamento
Abbondanza
Bibliografia
Acquacoltura
Profilo di acquacoltura
Varietà
Genetica
Frequenze alleliche
Ereditarietà
Malattie
Elaborazione
Mass conversion
Collaboratori
Immagini
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Suoni
Ciguatera
Velocità
Modalità di nuoto
Area branchiale
Otoliths
Cervelli
Vista

Strumenti

Special reports

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 17.7 - 23.7, mean 20.5 (based on 94 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01047 (0.00582 - 0.01883), b=3.02 (2.87 - 3.17), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.0   ±0.66 se; Based on food items.
Resilienza (Ref. 69278):  Molto basso, tempo minimo di raddoppiamento della popolazione più di 14 anni (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (75 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.