Ikan bertulang rawan (sharks and rays)
(Bramble, sleeper and dogfish sharks) > Squalidae
Etymology: Squalus: Genus name from Latin 'squalus' meaning shark (Ref. 6885, 27436). More on author: Macleay.
Junior synonym Squalus acutipinnis Regan, 1908 is considered a valid species in Ref. 109601. Validity needs further confirmation.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; laut dasar (demersal); kisaran kedalaman 30 - 750 m (Ref. 27121), usually 80 - 300 m (Ref. 57911). Subtropical; 9°C - 23°C (Ref. 57911); 42°N - 41°S, 18°W - 169°E (Ref. 247)
Eastern Indian Ocean: previously considered to be an Australian endemic (Ref. 49645). Eastern Atlantic: confirmed to occur in the Mediterranean (Ref. 93472). Dogfishes presently referred to in current literature as Squalus megalops appear to belong to a complex of similar species. Specimens from the different regions still need to be compared carefully (Ref. 6871).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / umur
Maturity: Lm 59.0, range 49 - 57 cm
Max length : 72.0 cm TL jantan/; (Ref. 104718); 89.0 cm TL (female); Umur maksimum dilaporkan: 32 Tahun (Ref. 93445)
Duri punggung (Keseluruhan (total)): 2; duri punggung lunak (Keseluruhan (total)): 0; Duri dubur 0; Sirip dubur lunak: 0. A small dogfish with a short, angular snout and a small mouth almost as wide as the snout is long; body without spots; 1st dorsal fin spine over pectoral fins (Ref. 5578). Bronze-grey above, white below; dorsal fins with black tips and white edges but markings inconspicuous in adults (Ref. 5578).
Found on the outer continental shelves and upper slopes, on or near the bottom (Ref. 31367); sublittoral below 130 m (Ref. 11230). Young mostly pelagic off the outer shelves (Ref. 5578). Aggregations by sex are regularly observed (Ref. 6871). Feeds on bony fishes, shrimps and other crustaceans, cephalopods and other elasmobranchs (Ref. 247). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205), with 2 to 4 young in a litter (Ref. 247). Gestation period is 2 years (Ref. 36731). Utilized for human consumption, the flesh most appealing dried salted or smoked (Ref. 6871). Also consumed fresh (Ref. 31367). Minimum depth reported from Ref. 6808.
Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). Ovoviviparous, with 2 to 4 young in a litter. Gestation period is about two years. Size at birth 20-24 cm TL (Ref. 6871).
Last, P.R. and J.D. Stevens, 1994. Sharks and rays of Australia. CSIRO, Australia. 513 p. (Ref. 6871)
Status IUCN Red List (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
ancaman kepada manusia
Perikanan: komersial; Ikan buruan: ya
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muat turun XML
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 12.8 - 22.8, mean 17.3 (based on 216 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00239 - 0.00633), b=3.07 (2.93 - 3.21), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.3 ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 27.5 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Daya lenting (Ref. 120179
): sangat rendah, Waktu penggandaan populasi minimum lebih dari 14 tahun (tmax = 32; Fec=2).
keancaman (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (69 of 100) .