Actinopterygii (peixes com raios nas barbatanas)
(Perch-likes) > Carangidae
(Jacks and pompanos) > Caranginae
Etymology: Caranx: French, carangue, the name of a Caribbean fish; 1836 (Ref. 45335). More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; marinhas; estuarina associadas(os) a recifes; oceanódromo (Ref. 51243); intervalo de profundidade 1 - 350 m (Ref. 7097), usually 1 - 200 m (Ref. 55173). Subtropical; 45°N - 35°S, 98°W - 14°E
Eastern Atlantic: Portugal to Angola, including the western Mediterranean. Western Atlantic: Nova Scotia, Canada and northern Gulf of Mexico to Uruguay (Ref. 7251), including the Greater Antilles (Ref. 9626). Absent from eastern Lesser Antilles (Ref. 26938). Indian Ocean records are probably misidentifications of Caranx ignobilis. Reports from Pacific refer to Caranx caninus, which may be conspecific.
Length at first maturity / Tamanho / Peso / Idade
Maturity: Lm 66.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 124 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 5217); common length : 75.0 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 2683); peso máx. Publicado: 32.0 kg (Ref. 27584)
Espinhos dorsais (total): 9; Raios dorsais moles (total): 19-22; Espinhos anais 3; Raios anais moles: 15 - 18. Diagnosis: Scutes on lateral line 23 (Ref. 57392) to 42 (Ref. 13442). No scales on chest (Ref. 13442), except a small mid-ventral patch in front of pelvic fins (Ref. 13442, 57392). Upper profile of head steep (Ref. 13442). Maxilla ending approximately below (Ref. 13442, 57392) or beyond (Ref. 57392) posterior edge of eye (in adult). Front of soft dorsal and anal fins elevated; olivaceous to bluish green dorsally, silvery to brassy on the sides; prominent black spot posteriorly on gill cover at level of eye, another at upper axil of pectoral fins, and often a third on lower pectoral rays; caudal yellowish (Ref. 13442).
Generally in neritic waters over the continental shelf (Ref. 5217), from the coastline, where it is common on shallow flats, to offshore waters (Ref. 57392). Adults ascend rivers (Ref. 26938). Juveniles abundant in brackish estuaries with muddy bottoms, near sandy beaches and on seagrass beds (Ref. 5217), entering lagoons and lower courses of rivers (Ref. 57392). They form fast-moving schools, although larger fish may be solitary. They feed on smaller fish, shrimp, and other invertebrates (Ref. 5521). Often grunts or croaks are heard when caught. Eggs are pelagic (Ref. 4233).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturidade | Reprodução | Desova | Ovos | Fecundidade | Larvas
Smith-Vaniz, W.F., J.-C. Quéro and M. Desoutter, 1990. Carangidae. p. 729-755. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 7097)
Categoria na Lista Vermelha da IUCN (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Ameaça para o homem
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 4690)
Pescarias: espécies comerciais; peixe desportivo: sim
Fontes da internet
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 16.5 - 27.9, mean 24.8 (based on 2020 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01950 (0.01187 - 0.03203), b=2.92 (2.79 - 3.05), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Nível Trófico (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 3.1 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resiliência (Ref. 120179
): Médio, tempo mínimo de duplicação da população 1,4 - 4,4 anos (Assuming tm 3-4).
Prior r = 0.53, 95% CL = 0.35 - 0.80, Based on 5 stock assessments.
Vulnerabilidade (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (41 of 100) .