Engraulis encrasicolus, European anchovy : fisheries, bait

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Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus, 1758)

European anchovy
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Engraulis encrasicolus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Engraulis encrasicolus (European anchovy)
Engraulis encrasicolus
Picture by Dammous, S.

分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 辐鳍鱼纲 (条鳍鱼) > Clupeiformes (Herrings) 鯡目 (Herrings) > Engraulidae (Anchovies) 鯷科 (Anchovies) > Engraulinae
Etymology: Engraulis: Greek, eggraulis, -eos = anchovy (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋; 半咸淡水; 海洋洄游的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - 400 m (Ref. 2683).   亞熱帶的; 62°N - 37°S, 18°W - 42°E (Ref. 54230)

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: Bergen, Norway to East London, South Africa (perhaps reaching Durban) (Ref. 10000). Also all of Mediterranean, Black and Azov seas, with stray individuals in Suez Canal and Gulf of Suez; also recorded from St. Helena (Ref. 189). Reported from Estonia (Ref. 33247).
東大西洋: 卑爾根,挪威到南非的東倫敦 (也許達到德爾班).(參考文獻 10000) 也所有地中海,黑海與亞速海, 藉由迷途的個體在蘇伊士運河與蘇伊士海灣中; 也從聖赫勒拿島記錄。 (參考文獻 189) 記錄來自愛沙尼亞了。 (參考文獻 33247) 西印度洋: 模里西斯,塞錫爾群島與湧升流環繞著索馬利亞的區域.(參考文獻 189)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm 9.7, range 9 - 14 cm
Max length : 20.0 cm SL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 189); common length : 13.5 cm SL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 189); 最大体重: 0.00 g; 最大年龄: 5 年 (Ref. 92145)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 0; 背的软条 (总数): 16-18; 臀棘 0; 臀鳍软条: 13 - 15; 脊椎骨: 46 - 47. Snout pointed; maxilla short, tip blunt, reaching almost to front border of pre-operculum, not projecting beyond tip of second supra-maxilla; tip of lower jaw reaching almost to below nostril. Gill rakers present on hind face of third epibranchial. Pseudobranch longer than eye, reaching onto inner face of operculum. A silver stripe along flank, disappearing with age.
吻端尖的; 颚骨短, 顶端钝的, 几乎到前鳃盖的前缘, 不是突出超过第二个上颚骨的顶端; 在鼻孔之下几乎到的下颌的顶端。 有鳃耙在第三个上鳃骨的后部面貌上。 伪鳃长度超过眼, 延伸到鳃盖的内面上面。 一条银色的斑纹沿着侧面,随着年龄而消失。

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Mainly a coastal marine species, forming large schools. Tolerates salinities of 5-41 ppt and in some areas, enters lagoons, estuaries and lakes, especially during spawning. Tends to move further north and into surface waters in summer, retreating and descending in winter. Feeds on planktonic organisms. Spawns from April to November with peaks usually in the warmest months. Eggs are ellipsoidal to oval, floating in the upper 50 m and hatching in 24-65 hours. Marketed fresh, dried, smoked, canned and frozen; made into fish meal (Ref. 9987).

主要地一个海洋沿岸种, 形成大群鱼群。 容忍 5- 的盐度 41个 ppt 与在一些地区, 进入泻湖,河口与湖, 特别是在产卵期间。 倾向移动到更北方而且在被向下退回来冬天时的夏天进入水表层。 吃浮游性生物。 从四月到产卵十一月用峰巅通常在最温暖的个月。 卵在上面的 50 公尺中是卵形到椭圆形, 漂浮的而且在 2465 小时的内孵化。 在市场上销售生鲜地,乾制了,烟熏了, 罐装及冷冻; 制成了鱼粉。 (参考文献 9987)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Pelagic spawners. Gametogenesis is continuous, multiple spawning. Spawning peaks are usually in the warmer months which makes this species a spring-summer spawner. The limits of the spawning season is dependent on temperature and is therefore more restricted in northern areas. Sex ratio: 45% female (Ref. 5580).東大西洋: 卑爾根,挪威到南非的東倫敦 (也許達到德爾班).(參考文獻 10000) 也所有地中海,黑海與亞速海, 藉由迷途的個體在蘇伊士運河與蘇伊士海灣中; 也從聖赫勒拿島記錄。 (參考文獻 189) 記錄來自愛沙尼亞了。 (參考文獻 33247) 西印度洋: 模里西斯,塞錫爾群島與湧升流環繞著索馬利亞的區域.(參考文獻 189)

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 | 合作者

Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana, 1988. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (Suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/2):305-579. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 189)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 120744)

  最不相关 (LC) ; Date assessed: 23 May 2013

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  无害处的





人类利用

渔业: 高经济性; 诱饵: usually
FAO(渔业: 产生, 物种外形; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | 周边海洋

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 7.1 - 18, mean 10.8 (based on 667 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5020   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00468 (0.00420 - 0.00521), b=3.10 (3.07 - 3.13), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  3.1   ±0.36 se; Based on food items.
Generation time: 2.6 (1.9 - 3.1) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 52 growth studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.3-1.73; tmax=6; Fec =13,000-503,000).
Prior r = 0.59, 95% CL = 0.39 - 0.91, Based on 21 stock assessments.
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (25 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Medium.