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Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus, 1758)

European anchovy
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Image of Engraulis encrasicolus (European anchovy)
Engraulis encrasicolus
Picture by Dammous, S.

Classificação / Names Nomes comuns | Sinônimos | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (peixes com raios nas barbatanas) > Clupeiformes (Herrings) > Engraulidae (Anchovies) > Engraulinae
Etymology: Engraulis: Greek, eggraulis, -eos = anchovy (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecologia

; marinhas; estuarina; oceanódromo (Ref. 51243); intervalo de profundidade 0 - 400 m (Ref. 2683).   Subtropical; 62°N - 37°S, 18°W - 42°E (Ref. 54230)

Distribuição Países | Áreas da FAO | Ecossistemas | Ocorrências | Point map | Introduções | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: Bergen, Norway to East London, South Africa (perhaps reaching Durban) (Ref. 10000). Also all of Mediterranean, Black and Azov seas, with stray individuals in Suez Canal and Gulf of Suez; also recorded from St. Helena (Ref. 189). Reported from Estonia (Ref. 33247).

Comprimento de primeira maturação / Tamanho / Peso / Idade

Maturity: Lm 9.7, range 9 - 14 cm
Max length : 20.0 cm SL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 189); common length : 13.5 cm SL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 189); peso máx. publicado: 0.00 g; idade máx. registrada: 5 anos (Ref. 92145)

Descrição suscinta Morfologia | Morfometria

Espinhos dorsais (total): 0; Raios dorsais (total): 16-18; Espinhos anais 0; Raios anais : 13 - 15; Vértebras: 46 - 47. Snout pointed; maxilla short, tip blunt, reaching almost to front border of pre-operculum, not projecting beyond tip of second supra-maxilla; tip of lower jaw reaching almost to below nostril. Gill rakers present on hind face of third epibranchial. Pseudobranch longer than eye, reaching onto inner face of operculum. A silver stripe along flank, disappearing with age.

Biologia     Glossário (p.ex. epibenthic)

Mainly a coastal marine species, forming large schools. Tolerates salinities of 5-41 ppt and in some areas, enters lagoons, estuaries and lakes, especially during spawning. Tends to move further north and into surface waters in summer, retreating and descending in winter. Feeds on planktonic organisms. Spawns from April to November with peaks usually in the warmest months. Eggs are ellipsoidal to oval, floating in the upper 50 m and hatching in 24-65 hours. Marketed fresh, dried, smoked, canned and frozen; made into fish meal (Ref. 9987).

Ciclo de vida ou comportamento de acasalamento Maturidade | Reprodução | Desova | Ovos | Fecundidade | Larvas

Pelagic spawners. Gametogenesis is continuous, multiple spawning. Spawning peaks are usually in the warmer months which makes this species a spring-summer spawner. The limits of the spawning season is dependent on temperature and is therefore more restricted in northern areas. Sex ratio: 45% female (Ref. 5580).

Referência principal Upload your references | Referências | Coordenador | Colaboradores

Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana, 1988. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (Suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/2):305-579. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 189)

Status na Lista Vermelha da UICN (Ref. 120744)

  Segura ou pouco preocupante (LC) ; Date assessed: 23 May 2013

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Ameaça para os humanos

  Harmless





Uso pelos humanos

Pescarias: altamente comercial; isca: usually
FAO(pescarias: produção, perfil da espécie; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

Ferramentas

Relatórios especiais

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Fontes da internet

Estimativas de algumas propriedades baseadas em modelos

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 7.1 - 18, mean 10.8 (based on 667 cells).
Índice de diversidade filogenética (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5020   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00468 (0.00420 - 0.00521), b=3.09 (3.06 - 3.12), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Nível Trófico (Ref. 69278):  3.1   ±0.36 se; Based on food items.
Resiliência (Ref. 69278):  médio(a), tempo mínimo de duplicação da população 1,4 - 4,4 anos (K=0.3-1.73; tmax=6; Fec =13,000-503,000).
Prior r = 0.59, 95% CL = 0.39 - 0.91, Based on 21 stock assessments.
Vulnerabilidade (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (25 of 100) .
Categoria de preço (Ref. 80766):   Medium.