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Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus, 1758)

European anchovy
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Image of Engraulis encrasicolus (European anchovy)
Engraulis encrasicolus
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Clupeiformes (Herrings) 鯡形目 (Herrings) > Engraulidae (Anchovies) 鯷科 (Anchovies) > Engraulinae
Etymology: Engraulis: Greek, eggraulis, -eos = anchovy (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋; 半鹹淡水; 海洋洄游的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - 400 m (Ref. 2683).   亞熱帶的; 62°N - 37°S, 18°W - 42°E (Ref. 54230)

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: Bergen, Norway to East London, South Africa (perhaps reaching Durban) (Ref. 10000). Also all of Mediterranean, Black and Azov seas, with stray individuals in Suez Canal and Gulf of Suez; also recorded from St. Helena (Ref. 189). Reported from Estonia (Ref. 33247).
東大西洋: 卑爾根,挪威到南非的東倫敦 (也許達到德爾班).(參考文獻 10000) 也所有地中海,黑海與亞速海, 藉由迷途的個體在蘇伊士運河與蘇伊士海灣中; 也從聖赫勒拿島記錄。 (參考文獻 189) 記錄來自愛沙尼亞了。 (參考文獻 33247) 西印度洋: 模里西斯,塞錫爾群島與湧升流環繞著索馬利亞的區域.(參考文獻 189)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 9.7, range 9 - 14 cm
Max length : 20.0 cm SL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 189); common length : 13.5 cm SL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 189); 最大體重: 0.00 g; 最大年齡: 5 年 (Ref. 92145)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 0; 背的軟條 (總數): 16-18; 臀棘 0; 臀鰭軟條: 13 - 15; 脊椎骨: 46 - 47. Snout pointed; maxilla short, tip blunt, reaching almost to front border of pre-operculum, not projecting beyond tip of second supra-maxilla; tip of lower jaw reaching almost to below nostril. Gill rakers present on hind face of third epibranchial. Pseudobranch longer than eye, reaching onto inner face of operculum. A silver stripe along flank, disappearing with age.
吻端尖的; 顎骨短, 頂端鈍的, 幾乎到前鰓蓋的前緣, 不是突出超過第二個上顎骨的頂端; 在鼻孔之下幾乎到的下頜的頂端。 有鰓耙在第三個上鰓骨的後部面貌上。 偽鰓長度超過眼, 延伸到鰓蓋的內面上面。 一條銀色的斑紋沿著側面,隨著年齡而消失。

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Mainly a coastal marine species, forming large schools. Tolerates salinities of 5-41 ppt and in some areas, enters lagoons, estuaries and lakes, especially during spawning. Tends to move further north and into surface waters in summer, retreating and descending in winter. Feeds on planktonic organisms. Spawns from April to November with peaks usually in the warmest months. Eggs are ellipsoidal to oval, floating in the upper 50 m and hatching in 24-65 hours. Marketed fresh, dried, smoked, canned and frozen; made into fish meal (Ref. 9987).

主要地一個海洋沿岸種, 形成大群魚群。 容忍 5- 的鹽度 41個 ppt 與在一些地區, 進入潟湖,河口與湖, 特別是在產卵期間。 傾向移動到更北方而且在被向下退回來冬天時的夏天進入水表層。 吃浮游性生物。 從四月到產卵十一月用峰巔通常在最溫暖的個月。 卵在上面的 50 公尺中是卵形到橢圓形, 漂浮的而且在 2465 小時的內孵化。 在市場上銷售生鮮地,乾製了,煙燻了, 罐裝及冷凍; 製成了魚粉。 (參考文獻 9987)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Pelagic spawners. Gametogenesis is continuous, multiple spawning. Spawning peaks are usually in the warmer months which makes this species a spring-summer spawner. The limits of the spawning season is dependent on temperature and is therefore more restricted in northern areas. Sex ratio: 45% female (Ref. 5580).東大西洋: 卑爾根,挪威到南非的東倫敦 (也許達到德爾班).(參考文獻 10000) 也所有地中海,黑海與亞速海, 藉由迷途的個體在蘇伊士運河與蘇伊士海灣中; 也從聖赫勒拿島記錄。 (參考文獻 189) 記錄來自愛沙尼亞了。 (參考文獻 33247) 西印度洋: 模里西斯,塞錫爾群島與湧升流環繞著索馬利亞的區域.(參考文獻 189)

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana, 1988. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (Suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/2):305-579. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 189)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 120744)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 23 May 2013

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  無害處的





人類使用

漁業: 高經濟性; 誘餌: usually
FAO(漁業: 產生, 魚種描繪; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | 周邊海洋

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 7.1 - 18, mean 10.8 (based on 667 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5020   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00468 (0.00420 - 0.00521), b=3.09 (3.06 - 3.12), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  3.1   ±0.36 se; Based on food items.
回復力 (Ref. 69278):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.3-1.73; tmax=6; Fec =13,000-503,000).
Prior r = 0.59, 95% CL = 0.39 - 0.91, Based on 21 stock assessments.
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (25 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Medium.