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Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus, 1758)

European anchovy
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Image of Engraulis encrasicolus (European anchovy)
Engraulis encrasicolus
Picture by Dammous, S.

klasifikasi / Names Nama-nama umum | Sinonim (persamaan) | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Ikan bertulan sejati > Clupeiformes (Herrings) > Engraulidae (Anchovies) > Engraulinae
Etymology: Engraulis: Greek, eggraulis, -eos = anchovy (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ekologi

; laut; payau; oceanodromus (Ref. 51243); kisaran kedalaman 0 - 400 m (Ref. 2683).   Subtropical; 62°N - 37°S, 18°W - 42°E (Ref. 54230)

Penyebaran Negara-negara | Daerah-daerah FAO | Ecosystems | Kemunculan | Point map | Introduksi | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: Bergen, Norway to East London, South Africa (perhaps reaching Durban) (Ref. 10000). Also all of Mediterranean, Black and Azov seas, with stray individuals in Suez Canal and Gulf of Suez; also recorded from St. Helena (Ref. 189). Reported from Estonia (Ref. 33247).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / umur

Maturity: Lm 9.7, range 9 - 14 cm
Max length : 20.0 cm SL jantan/; (Ref. 189); common length : 13.5 cm SL jantan/; (Ref. 189); Berat maksimum terpublikasi: 0.00 g; Umur maksimum dilaporkan: 5 Tahun (Ref. 92145)

deskripsi pendek Morfologi | Morfometrik

Duri punggung (Keseluruhan (total)): 0; duri punggung lunak (Keseluruhan (total)): 16-18; Duri dubur 0; Sirip dubur lunak: 13 - 15; vertebrata, bertulang belakang: 46 - 47. Snout pointed; maxilla short, tip blunt, reaching almost to front border of pre-operculum, not projecting beyond tip of second supra-maxilla; tip of lower jaw reaching almost to below nostril. Gill rakers present on hind face of third epibranchial. Pseudobranch longer than eye, reaching onto inner face of operculum. A silver stripe along flank, disappearing with age.

Biologi     Daftar kata (contoh epibenthic)

Mainly a coastal marine species, forming large schools. Tolerates salinities of 5-41 ppt and in some areas, enters lagoons, estuaries and lakes, especially during spawning. Tends to move further north and into surface waters in summer, retreating and descending in winter. Feeds on planktonic organisms. Spawns from April to November with peaks usually in the warmest months. Eggs are ellipsoidal to oval, floating in the upper 50 m and hatching in 24-65 hours. Marketed fresh, dried, smoked, canned and frozen; made into fish meal (Ref. 9987).

Life cycle and mating behavior Kematangan | Reproduksi, perkembang biakan | Pemijahan | telur-telur | Fecundity | Larva

Pelagic spawners. Gametogenesis is continuous, multiple spawning. Spawning peaks are usually in the warmer months which makes this species a spring-summer spawner. The limits of the spawning season is dependent on temperature and is therefore more restricted in northern areas. Sex ratio: 45% female (Ref. 5580).

rujukan utama Upload your references | Acuan | Koordinator | mitra

Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana, 1988. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (Suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/2):305-579. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 189)

Status IUCN Red List (Ref. 120744)

  kurang bimbang (LC) ; Date assessed: 23 May 2013

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

ancaman kepada manusia

  Harmless





penggunaan manusia

Perikanan: bernilai komersial tinggi; umpan: usually
FAO(Perikanan: production, profail spesis; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 7.1 - 18, mean 10.8 (based on 667 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5020   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00468 (0.00420 - 0.00521), b=3.09 (3.06 - 3.12), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.1   ±0.36 se; Based on food items.
Daya lenting (Ref. 69278):  sedang, Waktu penggandaan populasi minimum 1.4 - 4.4 tahun (K=0.3-1.73; tmax=6; Fec =13,000-503,000).
Prior r = 0.59, 95% CL = 0.39 - 0.91, Based on 21 stock assessments.
keancaman (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (25 of 100) .
kategori harga (Ref. 80766):   Medium.