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Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus, 1758)

European anchovy
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Image of Engraulis encrasicolus (European anchovy)
Engraulis encrasicolus
Picture by Dammous, S.

التصنيف / Names الأسماء الشائعة | مرادفات | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

شعاعيات الزعانف > Clupeiformes (Herrings) > Engraulidae (Anchovies) > Engraulinae
Etymology: Engraulis: Greek, eggraulis, -eos = anchovy (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range البيئة

; بحري; مياه مخلوطة; محيطية (Ref. 51243); نطاق العمق 0 - 400 m (Ref. 2683).   Subtropical; 62°N - 37°S, 18°W - 42°E (Ref. 54230)

التوزيع دول | مناطق الفاو | النظام البيئي | الظهور | Point map | مقدمة | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: Bergen, Norway to East London, South Africa (perhaps reaching Durban) (Ref. 10000). Also all of Mediterranean, Black and Azov seas, with stray individuals in Suez Canal and Gulf of Suez; also recorded from St. Helena (Ref. 189). Reported from Estonia (Ref. 33247).

Length at first maturity / الحجم / وزن / العمر

Maturity: Lm 9.7, range 9 - 14 cm
Max length : 20.0 cm SL ذكر/ مختلط الجنس; (Ref. 189); common length : 13.5 cm SL ذكر/ مختلط الجنس; (Ref. 189); أعلا وزن تم نشرة: 0.00 g; العمر: 5 سنين (Ref. 92145)

وصف مختصر الوصف الخارجي | قياسات المظهر الخارجي

الأشواك الظهرية (المجموع): 0; الأشعة الظهرية الناعمة (المجموع): 16-18; شوكة شرجية 0; أشعه شرجية لينه: 13 - 15; فقرات: 46 - 47. Snout pointed; maxilla short, tip blunt, reaching almost to front border of pre-operculum, not projecting beyond tip of second supra-maxilla; tip of lower jaw reaching almost to below nostril. Gill rakers present on hind face of third epibranchial. Pseudobranch longer than eye, reaching onto inner face of operculum. A silver stripe along flank, disappearing with age.

أحياء     المصطلحات (على سبيل المثال epibenthic)

Mainly a coastal marine species, forming large schools. Tolerates salinities of 5-41 ppt and in some areas, enters lagoons, estuaries and lakes, especially during spawning. Tends to move further north and into surface waters in summer, retreating and descending in winter. Feeds on planktonic organisms. Spawns from April to November with peaks usually in the warmest months. Eggs are ellipsoidal to oval, floating in the upper 50 m and hatching in 24-65 hours. Marketed fresh, dried, smoked, canned and frozen; made into fish meal (Ref. 9987).

Life cycle and mating behavior النضج | التكاثر | وضع البيض | بيض | الخصوبة | Larvae

Pelagic spawners. Gametogenesis is continuous, multiple spawning. Spawning peaks are usually in the warmer months which makes this species a spring-summer spawner. The limits of the spawning season is dependent on temperature and is therefore more restricted in northern areas. Sex ratio: 45% female (Ref. 5580).

المرجع الرئيسي Upload your references | مراجع | المنظم | المتعاونين

Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana, 1988. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (Suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/2):305-579. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 189)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)

  Least Concern (LC) ; Date assessed: 23 May 2013

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

خطر للأنسان

  Harmless





استخدامات بشرية

مصائد: ذو قيمة تاجرية عالية; طعم: usually

أدوات

تقارير خاصة

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مصادر علي الأنترنت

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 7.1 - 18, mean 10.8 (based on 667 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5020   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00468 (0.00420 - 0.00521), b=3.09 (3.06 - 3.12), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
مستوى غذائي (Ref. 69278):  3.1   ±0.36 se; Based on food items.
المرونه (Ref. 69278):  وسيط, الحد الزمني الأدني لتضاعف عدد أفراد المجتمع 1.4-4.4 سنة (K=0.3-1.73; tmax=6; Fec =13,000-503,000).
Prior r = 0.59, 95% CL = 0.39 - 0.91, Based on 21 stock assessments.
عرضة للخطر (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (25 of 100) .
فئة السعر (Ref. 80766):   Medium.