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Cephalopholis sonnerati (Valenciennes, 1828)

Tomato hind
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Cephalopholis sonnerati
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Klassifizierung / Names Namen | Synonyme | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (Strahlenflosser) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Cephalopholis: Greek, kephale = head + Greek, pholis = scale (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Valenciennes.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ökologie

; seewasser riff-verbunden; standorttreu; tiefenbereich 10 - 150 m (Ref. 9710), usually 20 - 150 m (Ref. 9710).   Tropical; 34°N - 32°S, 31°E - 158°W (Ref. 5222)

Verbreitung Länder | FAO Gebiete | Ecosystems | Vorkommen | Point map | Einführungen | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: east coast of Africa (Djibouti, Socotra to Durban) to the Line Islands, north to southern Japan, south to southern Queensland (Australia). Not found at the Chagos Archipelago despite intensive survey and not reported from the Red Sea and Persian Gulf.

Length at first maturity / Size / Gewicht / Alter

Maturity: Lm ?, range 28 - ? cm
Max length : 57.0 cm TL Männchen/unbestimmt; (Ref. 5222); common length : 30.0 cm TL Männchen/unbestimmt; (Ref. 5450)

Kurzbeschreibung Morphologie | Morphometrie

Rückenflossenstacheln (insgesamt): 9; Rückenflossenweichstrahlen (insgesamt): 14-16; Afterflossenstacheln 3; Afterflossenweichstrahlen: 9. This species is distinguished by the following characters: body depth greater than or subequal to head length, 2.3-2.7 times in standard length (for specimens 9-41 cm SL); dorsal head profile of adults straight to concave, the nape distinctly convex; pectoral fins subequal to pelvic fins, 1.5-1.7 times in head length for specimens of 15-40 cm length (in specimens larger than 40 cm, the pelvic fins are longer than the pectoral fins); pelvic fins reaching to or beyond anus; ctenoid body scales, cycloid on abdomen. Colour: Adults from Pacific Ocean generally pale reddish to yellowish brown, covered with numerous small brownish red or dark brown spots on head, body, and fins; while the juveniles are dark reddish brown to nearly black, the rear margin of caudal fin and sometimes pectoral fins whitish; or body brownish orange with scattered pale greenish spots, and black spot between upper and middle opercular spines (Ref. 39231, 90102).

Biologie     Fachlexikon (Englisch) (z.B. epibenthic)

Adults occur in deep lagoon reefs and steep outer reef slopes and in coastal areas with rocky substrates. Juveniles are usually found near sponges or coral heads (Ref. 9710). Adults usually at moderate depths with bommies with large holes, usually occupied by cleaner shrimps (Ref. 48635). They are solitary (Ref. 90102) and are usually caught in depths of 30 to 100 m, but in Madagascar, they occur in depths of 10 to 20 m. They feed on small fishes and crustaceans including shrimps, crabs and stomatopods (Ref. 37816). Females mature at about 28 cm SL and males at about 34 cm SL (Ref. 6448). Are sold in Hong Kong live fish markets (Ref. 27253). They are generally marketed fresh (Ref. 5284) and of commercial importance throughout most of its range. They are primarily caught with hook-and-line, spear, and in traps (Ref. 39231).

Life cycle and mating behavior Geschlechtsreife | Fortpflanzung | Ablaichen | Eier | Fecundity | Larven

Hauptreferenz Upload your references | Referenzen | Koordinator : Heemstra, Phillip C. | Partner

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

IUCN Rote Liste Status (Ref. 120744)

  nicht bedroht (LC) ; Date assessed: 15 November 2017

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Bedrohung für Menschen

  Harmless





Nutzung durch Menschen

Fischereien: kommerziell
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 21.2 - 29, mean 27.6 (based on 2728 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01288 (0.01028 - 0.01614), b=3.05 (3.02 - 3.08), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.8   ±0.60 se; Based on food items.
Widerstandsfähigkeit (Ref. 69278):  mittel, Verdopplung der Population dauert 1,4 - 4,4 Jahre. (Fec = 42,252).
Verwundbarkeit (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (46 of 100) .
Preiskategorie (Ref. 80766):   Very high.