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Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)

Malabar grouper
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Image of Epinephelus malabaricus (Malabar grouper)
Epinephelus malabaricus
Picture by De Vroe, J.

分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 辐鳍鱼纲 (条鳍鱼) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) 鱸形目 (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) 鮨科 (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).  More on authors: Bloch & Schneider.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋; 半咸淡水 礁区鱼类; 非产卵性溯降河的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - 150 m (Ref. 5222).   熱帶; 30°N - 32°S, 29°E - 173°W (Ref. 5222)

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to Tonga, north to Japan, south to Australia. It is not known from the Persian Gulf, where the closely related Epinephelus coioides is common.
印度-太平洋: 紅海而且東非到東加,北至日本, 南至澳洲。 它是已知不來自接近地講的 點帶石斑〔Epinephelus coioides〕 是普遍的波斯灣。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm 64.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 234 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 5213); common length : 100.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 5213); 最大体重: 150.0 kg (Ref. 9710)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 11; 背的软条 (总数): 14-16; 臀棘 3; 臀鳍软条: 8. Characterized by light grey to yellowish brown color; five slightly oblique dark brown bars that bifurcate ventrally; numerous small black spots and blotches in head and body; ctenoid scales on body except cycloid anterodorsally on body, thorax and abdomen; body with auxiliary scales; greatest depth of body 3.0-3.6 in SL; rounded caudal fin; pelvic fins, 2.0-2.6 in head length (Ref. 90102); head length 2.3-2.6 times in SL; snout length 1.7-2.0 times in upper jaw length; interorbital width 4.5-6.5 times in HL and 2.1-3.0 times in upper jaw length; flat or slightly convex interorbital area; subangular preopercle, with enlarged serrae at the angle; almost straight upper edge of operculum; subequal posterior and anterior nostrils, except in large adults which have the posterior nostrils slightly larger; maxilla reaches to or past vertical at rear edge of orbit, maxilla width 4.5-6.5% of SL; upper jaw length 17-22% of SL, 2-5 rows of teeth on midlateral part of lower jaw (Ref. 89707).

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

A common species found in a variety of habitats: coral and rocky reefs, tide pools, estuaries, mangrove swamps and sandy or mud bottom from shore to depths of 150 m. Solitary (Ref 90102). Juveniles found near shore and in estuaries; sex reversal probable; catch statistics poor being previously confused with E. andersoni (Ref. 4332). Feed primarily on fishes and crustaceans, and occasionally on cephalopods (Ref. 9710). Present in Hong Kong live fish markets (Ref. 27253). Widely used in mariculture mainly in the Far East (Ref. 43448).

一种常见的种发现于多种栖息地了: 珊瑚礁与岩礁,潮池,河口, 红树林沼泽与沙的或来自海岸到深度的泥底 150 公尺。 稚鱼发现近岸与在河口; 性别反转可能的; 渔获统计不好是先前与 E. andersoni 互相混淆了。 (参考文献 4332) 主要吃鱼与甲壳动物, 与偶然地吃头足类动.(参考文献 9710) 在香港活鱼贩卖。 (参考文献 27253) 广泛地被用于了海洋生物养殖主要在远东.(参考文献 43448)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

印度-太平洋: 紅海而且東非到東加,北至日本, 南至澳洲。 它是已知不來自接近地講的 點帶石斑〔Epinephelus coioides〕 是普遍的波斯灣。

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 : Heemstra, Phillip C. | 合作者

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 120744)

  最不相关 (LC) ; Date assessed: 18 November 2016

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  无害处的





人类利用

渔业: 高经济性; 养殖: 商业性; 游钓鱼种: 是的
FAO(养殖: 产生; ; publication : search) | FishSource | 周边海洋

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成熟度
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孕卵数

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养殖
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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 24.3 - 29.1, mean 28 (based on 2428 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01230 (0.00811 - 0.01865), b=3.05 (2.93 - 3.17), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  4.2   ±0.61 se; Based on food items.
回复力 (Ref. 69278):  低的, 最小族群倍增时间4.5 - 14 年 (Fec = 51,087).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.