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Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)

Malabar grouper
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Epinephelus malabaricus
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Classification / Names ຊື່ສາມັນ | ຄຳສັບຄ້າຍຄືກັນ | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

ກຸ່ມປາກະດູກແຂງ > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).  More on authors: Bloch & Schneider.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range ນິເວດວິທະຍາ

; ສັດທະເລ; ນ້ຳກ່ອຍ ກ່ຽວກັນຫີນ; ປາທີ່ມີການເຄື່ອນຍ້າຍຈາກທະເລໄປຫານ້ຳຈືດ ແລະນ້ຳຈືດຫາທະເລ (Ref. 51243); ລະດັບຄວາມເລິກ 0 - 150 m (Ref. 5222).   Tropical; 30°N - 32°S, 29°E - 173°W (Ref. 5222)

ການແຜ່ກະຈາຍ ປະເທດ | ເຂດ FAO | ລະບົບນິເວດ | ການປະກົດຕົວ | Point map | ການແນະນຳ | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to Tonga, north to Japan, south to Australia. It is not known from the Persian Gulf, where the closely related Epinephelus coioides is common.

Length at first maturity / ຂະໜາດ / ນ້ຳໜັກ / Age

Maturity: Lm 64.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 234 cm TL ຕົວຜູ້/ບໍ່ມີເພດ; (Ref. 5213); common length : 100.0 cm TL ຕົວຜູ້/ບໍ່ມີເພດ; (Ref. 5213); ນ້ຳໜັກສູງສຸດທີ່ເຄຍຈັດພີມມາ: 150.0 kg (Ref. 9710)

Short description ສະລີລະວິທະຍາ | ການວັດແທກຮູບຮ່າງລັກສະນະພາຍນອກຂອງດິນ,ສັດ,ປາ…

ຄີ (ໜາມ)ແຂງຢູ່ຫຼັງປາ (ທັງໝົດ): 11; ຄີຫຼັງຂອງປາ (ຄີອ່ອນ) (ທັງໝົດ): 14-16; ຄີ(ໜາມ) ແຂງຢູ່ຄີກົ້ນປາ ກຸ່ມປາກະດູກແຂງ ຄວາມຖີ່ຂອງກຸ່ມຖ່າຍທອດພັນ ປາທີ່ມີການເຄື່ອນຍ້າຍຈາກທະເລໄປຫານ້ຳຈືດ ແລະນ້ຳຈືດຫາທະເລ ປາທີ່ມີການເຄື່ອນຍ້າຍຈາກທະເລແລະໄປໄຂ່ຢູ່ນ້ຳຈືດ ຄີກົ້ນຂອງປາ ສັດທີ່ມີກະດູກສັນຫັຼງ ການຖ່າຍທອດທາງກຳມະພັນຈາກພໍ່ແມ່ຫາລູກ 3; ຄີກົ້ນຂອງປາ: 8. Characterized by light grey to yellowish brown color; five slightly oblique dark brown bars that bifurcate ventrally; numerous small black spots and blotches in head and body; ctenoid scales on body except cycloid anterodorsally on body, thorax and abdomen; body with auxiliary scales; greatest depth of body 3.0-3.6 in SL; rounded caudal fin; pelvic fins, 2.0-2.6 in head length (Ref. 90102); head length 2.3-2.6 times in SL; snout length 1.7-2.0 times in upper jaw length; interorbital width 4.5-6.5 times in HL and 2.1-3.0 times in upper jaw length; flat or slightly convex interorbital area; subangular preopercle, with enlarged serrae at the angle; almost straight upper edge of operculum; subequal posterior and anterior nostrils, except in large adults which have the posterior nostrils slightly larger; maxilla reaches to or past vertical at rear edge of orbit, maxilla width 4.5-6.5% of SL; upper jaw length 17-22% of SL, 2-5 rows of teeth on midlateral part of lower jaw (Ref. 89707).

ຊີວະສາດ     ຄຳແປສັບ (ຕ.ຢ. epibenthic)

A common species found in a variety of habitats: coral and rocky reefs, tide pools, estuaries, mangrove swamps and sandy or mud bottom from shore to depths of 150 m. Solitary (Ref 90102). Juveniles found near shore and in estuaries; sex reversal probable; catch statistics poor being previously confused with E. andersoni (Ref. 4332). Feed primarily on fishes and crustaceans, and occasionally on cephalopods (Ref. 9710). Present in Hong Kong live fish markets (Ref. 27253). Widely used in mariculture mainly in the Far East (Ref. 43448).

Life cycle and mating behavior ການຈະເລີນເຕັມໄວ | ການສືບພັນ | ການວາງໄຂ່ | ໄຂ່ | ຄວາມດົກຂອງໄຂ່ປາ | ຕົວອ່ອນ

Main reference Upload your references | ເອກະສານອ້າງອີງ | ຜູ້ປະສານງານ : Heemstra, Phillip C. | ຜູ້ຮ່ວມມື

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)

  Least Concern (LC) ; Date assessed: 18 November 2016

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless





Human uses

ການປະມົງ: ທີ່ມີການຄ້າສູງ; ການລ້ຽງສັດນ້ຳ: ເປັນສີນຄ້າ; ຊະນິດປາທີ່ຖືກນຳໃຊ້ເຂົ້າໃນການຫາເພື່ອເປັນເກມກິລາ: ແມ່ນ
FAO(ການລ້ຽງສັດນ້ຳ: ຜົນຜະລິດ; ; publication : search) | FishSource | ທະເລອ້ອມຂ້າງພວກເຮົາ

ຂໍ້ມູນຕື່ມອີກ

ຊື່ສາມັນ
ຄຳສັບຄ້າຍຄືກັນ
ການເຜົາໃໝ້ພະລັງງານໂດຍປ່ຽນທາດອາຫານໃນຮ່າງກາຍໃຫ້ກາຍເປັນຊີ້ນແລະໜັງ
ຜູ້ລ້າ
ການສຶກສາຜົນກະທົບຂອງສານຜິດທີ່ມີຜົນກະທົບຕໍ່ລະບົບນິເວດ
ການສືບພັນ
ການຈະເລີນເຕັມໄວ
ການວາງໄຂ່
ການສັງລວມການວາງໄຂ່
ຄວາມດົກຂອງໄຂ່ປາ
ໄຂ່
Egg development
ເອກະສານອ້າງອີງ
ການລ້ຽງສັດນ້ຳ
ຂໍ້ມູນການລ້ຽງສັດນ້ຳ
ສາຍພັນ
ກຳມະພັນ
ຄວາມຖີ່ຂອງກຸ່ມຖ່າຍທອດພັນ
ການຖ່າຍທອດທາງກຳມະພັນຈາກພໍ່ແມ່ຫາລູກ
ພະຍາດ
ການປຸງແຕ່ງ
Mass conversion
ຜູ້ຮ່ວມມື
ຮູບ
Stamps, Coins Misc.
ສຽງ
ຫອຍມີພິດຊະນິດນຶ່ງທີ່ອາໄສໃນທະເລ
ຄວາມໄວ
ປະເພດການລອຍ
ເນື້ອທີ່ເຫືອກ
Otoliths
ສະໝອງ
ວິໄສທັດ

ເຄື່ອງມື

Special reports

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ແຫຼ່ງອີນເຕີເນັດ

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 24.3 - 29.1, mean 28 (based on 2428 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01230 (0.00811 - 0.01865), b=3.05 (2.93 - 3.17), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
ຊັ້ນເຂດຮ້ອນ (Ref. 69278):  4.2   ±0.61 se; Based on food items.
ຄວາມຢືດຢຸ່ນ (Ref. 69278):  ຕຳ່, ປະຊາກອນຕຳ່ສຸດທີ່ໃຊ້ເວລາສອງເທົ່າ 4.5 - 14 ປີ (Fec = 51,087).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.