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Ballerus ballerus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Zope
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Ballerus ballerus
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Cypriniformes (Carps) 鯉形目 (Carps) > Cyprinidae (Minnows or carps) 鯉科 (Minnows or carps) > Leuciscinae
  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 淡水; 半鹹淡水 底中水層性; 河川洄游 (Ref. 51243).   溫帶; 5°C - 25°C (Ref. 12468); 63°N - 43°N, 4°E - 56°E

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Eurasia: large rivers draining to Baltic Sea (absent in northern Sweden and Finland north of 62°N), North Sea (Weser, Elbe), Black Sea, Sea of Azov (Don) and Caspian Sea, where it is abundant in Volga, rare in Ural. Appendix III of the Bern Convention (protected fauna).
歐亞大陸: 波羅的海,黑海,亞速海北方與裡海的流域。 伯恩公約的附錄 3(受保育的動物群).

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm ?, range 24 - 27 cm
Max length : 40.0 cm SL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 59043); common length : 20.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 556); 最大體重: 940.00 g (Ref. 6114)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

Differs from Ballerus sapa by having superior mouth, 62-77 scales on lateral line, and small eye with diameter about 2/3 of snout length in individuals larger than 10 cm SL (Ref. 59043).

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Occur in large lowland rivers with backwaters and also in eutrophic lowland lakes. Feed mainly on zooplankton in open water of backwaters and other still water bodies. Spawn along shores of rivers or in backwaters on submerged vegetation and also on gravel in moderate current. Migrate upriver in long distances to suitable spawning sites. Juveniles stay in backwaters and flooded zones along rivers. Enter freshened parts of seas to forage. Life span reaches more than 10 years. Locally threatened by habitat alterations along river banks (Ref. 59043).

棲息於大河的下面範圍。 主要吃浮游生物。 在春天溯河迴游而且產卵。 (參考文獻 9696)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Mostly spawn several times during their life. Spawning lasts usually for 1-2 weeks. Female spawn once a year. Male often guard spawning territories along the shoreline (Ref. 59043).歐亞大陸: 波羅的海,黑海,亞速海北方與裡海的流域。 伯恩公約的附錄 3(受保育的動物群).

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 120744)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 05 March 2010

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

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漁業: 低經濟
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Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.7500   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00871 (0.00514 - 0.01477), b=3.13 (2.99 - 3.27), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  3.2   ±0.36 se; Based on food items.
Generation time: 6.0 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.18-0.19; tm=4-5).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (49 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.