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Ballerus ballerus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Zope
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Image of Ballerus ballerus (Zope)
Ballerus ballerus
Picture by Busse, K.

klasifikasi / Names Nama-nama umum | Sinonim (persamaan) | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Ikan bertulan sejati > Cypriniformes (Carps) > Cyprinidae (Minnows or carps) > Leuciscinae
  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ekologi

; air tawar; payau bentopelagis; potamodromous (Ref. 51243).   Temperate; 5°C - 25°C (Ref. 12468); 63°N - 43°N, 4°E - 56°E

Penyebaran Negara-negara | Daerah-daerah FAO | Ecosystems | Kemunculan | Point map | Introduksi | Faunafri

Eurasia: large rivers draining to Baltic Sea (absent in northern Sweden and Finland north of 62°N), North Sea (Weser, Elbe), Black Sea, Sea of Azov (Don) and Caspian Sea, where it is abundant in Volga, rare in Ural. Appendix III of the Bern Convention (protected fauna).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / umur

Maturity: Lm ?, range 24 - 27 cm
Max length : 40.0 cm SL jantan/; (Ref. 59043); common length : 20.0 cm TL jantan/; (Ref. 556); Berat maksimum terpublikasi: 940.00 g (Ref. 6114)

deskripsi pendek Morfologi | Morfometrik

Differs from Ballerus sapa by having superior mouth, 62-77 scales on lateral line, and small eye with diameter about 2/3 of snout length in individuals larger than 10 cm SL (Ref. 59043).

Biologi     Daftar kata (contoh epibenthic)

Occur in large lowland rivers with backwaters and also in eutrophic lowland lakes. Feed mainly on zooplankton in open water of backwaters and other still water bodies. Spawn along shores of rivers or in backwaters on submerged vegetation and also on gravel in moderate current. Migrate upriver in long distances to suitable spawning sites. Juveniles stay in backwaters and flooded zones along rivers. Enter freshened parts of seas to forage. Life span reaches more than 10 years. Locally threatened by habitat alterations along river banks (Ref. 59043).

Life cycle and mating behavior Kematangan | Reproduksi, perkembang biakan | Pemijahan | telur-telur | Fecundity | Larva

Mostly spawn several times during their life. Spawning lasts usually for 1-2 weeks. Female spawn once a year. Male often guard spawning territories along the shoreline (Ref. 59043).

rujukan utama Upload your references | Acuan | Koordinator | mitra

Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)

Status IUCN Red List (Ref. 120744)

  kurang bimbang (LC) ; Date assessed: 05 March 2010

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

ancaman kepada manusia

  Harmless





penggunaan manusia

Perikanan: nilai komersial kecil
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource |

informasi lanjut

Nama-nama umum
Sinonim (persamaan)
metabolisme
Pemangsa
Ekotoksikologi
Reproduksi, perkembang biakan
Kematangan
Pemijahan
Spawning aggregation
Fecundity
telur-telur
pekembangan telor
Umur / Saiz
Pertumbuhan
panjang-berat
panjang-panjang
ukuran frekuensi
Morfometrik
Morfologi
Larva
Dinamika larva
pemulihan
Kelimpahan
Acuan
Budidaya air
profil budidaya air
Strain
Genetika
Frekuensi alel
Diturunkan
Penyakit-penyakit
Pengolahan
Mass conversion
mitra
Gambar
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Suara-suara
Ciguatera
Kecepatan
Tipe renang
Area insang
Otoliths
Otak
Penglihatan / visi

Alat, peralatan

laporan khas

muat turun XML

Sumber internet

Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.7500   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00871 (0.00514 - 0.01477), b=3.13 (2.99 - 3.27), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.2   ±0.36 se; Based on food items.
Generation time: 6.0 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Daya lenting (Ref. 120179):  sedang, Waktu penggandaan populasi minimum 1.4 - 4.4 tahun (K=0.18-0.19; tm=4-5).
keancaman (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (49 of 100) .
kategori harga (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.