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Plectropomus areolatus (Rüppell, 1830)

Squaretail coralgrouper
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
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Plectropomus areolatus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Plectropomus areolatus (Squaretail coralgrouper)
Plectropomus areolatus
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Classificação / Names Nomes comuns | Sinónimos | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (peixes com raios nas barbatanas) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Plectropomus: Greek,plektron = anything to strike with, spur + Greek, poma = cover, operculum (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Rüppell.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecologia

; marinhas associadas(os) a recifes; intervalo de profundidade 1 - 20 m (Ref. 9710).   Tropical; 31°N - 25°S, 32°E - 169°W (Ref. 5222)

Distribuição Países | Áreas FAO | Ecossistemas | Ocorrências | Point map | Introduções | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: Red Sea to the Phoenix Islands and Samoa, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Australia.

Length at first maturity / Tamanho / Peso / Idade

Maturity: Lm 36.6, range 30 - ? cm
Max length : 80.0 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 90102)

Descrição breve Morfologia | Morfometria

Espinhos dorsais (total): 7 - 8; Raios dorsais moles (total): 10-12; Espinhos anais 3; Raios anais moles: 8. This species is distinguished by the following characters: body elongate and robust, depth 2.9-3.9 in SL; preopercle broadly rounded, with 3 large, ventrally-directed spines along lower half; opercle with 3 flat spines, the upper and lower spines covered by skin; nostrils subequal, set in a shallow groove running forward from eye; large canine teeth at front of jaws; 1-4 large canines on side of lower jaw; gill rakers of first gill arch 0-2 + 2-7; caudal fin truncate to slightly emarginate, the caudal concavity more than 13 times in HL; pectoral-fin rays 15-16, 2.0-2.3 in HL; lateral-line scales 83-97. Colour whitish to pale grey color, with numerous round to oval dark-edged blue spots (the largest about equal to pupil); most spots within a spot diameter of adjacent spots; head, body, and median fins frequently with 4-5 dark blotches forming saddles on back (greenish grey); pelvic fins with dark brown to blackish membranes; rear margin of caudal fin with a white edge and often with a blackish submarginal band (Ref. 39231, 89707, 90102).

Biologia     Glossário (ex. epibenthic)

Adults inhabit lagoon and seaward reefs, in areas with rich coral growth. Most frequently encountered in channels along the reef front (Ref. 9710, 48635). Often a shy fish (Ref. 48635). Feed exclusively on fishes (Ref. 37816). Misidentified as P. leopardus in Ref. 2928 (Johannes, pers. comm.). This study reports of a declining stock in Palau due to fishing. Before actual spawning around full moon, the species aggregates along channels and are responsive to baited hooks, making them vulnerable to fishermen; upward movements of some to take baited hooks presumably mistaken for courtship or spawning behavior. Large individuals may be ciguatoxic in certain areas (Ref. 37816). In the Hong Kong live fish markets (Ref. 27253). Of interest to artisanal fisheries and caught with hook-and-line (Ref. 39231).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturidade | Reprodução | Desova | Ovos | Fecundidade | Larvas

Referência principal Upload your references | Referências | Coordenador : Heemstra, Phillip C. | Colaboradores

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

Categoria na Lista Vermelha da IUCN (Ref. 120744)

  Vulnerável, ver o Livro Vermelho da IUCN (VU) (A2bd); Date assessed: 17 November 2016

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Ameaça para o homem

  Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 4690)





Utilização humana

Pescarias: pouco comercial
FAO(pescarias: produção; publication : search) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

Mais informação

Países
Áreas FAO
Ecossistemas
Ocorrências
Introduções
Stocks
Ecologia
Dieta
Itens alimentares
Consumo alimentar
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Nomes comuns
Sinónimos
Metabolismo
Predadores
Ecotoxicologia
Reprodução
Maturidade
Desova
Agregação para desova
Fecundidade
Ovos
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Idade/Tamanho
Crescimento
Comprimento-peso
Comprimento-comprimento
Frequência de comprimento
Morfometria
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Dinâmica larvar
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Relatórios especiais

Descarregue XML

Fontes da internet

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 26.4 - 29.3, mean 28.5 (based on 1868 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5078   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00550 - 0.02289), b=3.05 (2.88 - 3.22), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Nível Trófico (Ref. 69278):  4.5   ±0.80 se; Based on food items.
Generation time: 1.7 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resiliência (Ref. 120179):  Médio, tempo mínimo de duplicação da população 1,4 - 4,4 anos (tm=2.5; Tmax=14;).
Vulnerabilidade (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100) .
Categoria de preço (Ref. 80766):   Very high.