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Plectropomus areolatus (Rüppell, 1830)

Squaretail coralgrouper
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Plectropomus areolatus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Plectropomus areolatus (Squaretail coralgrouper)
Plectropomus areolatus
Picture by Field, R.

رده بندی / Names اسامي عام | مترادف | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

ماهبان شعاع باله > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Plectropomus: Greek,plektron = anything to strike with, spur + Greek, poma = cover, operculum (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Rüppell.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range بوم شناسي

; دريايي وابسته به آب سنگ; تغييرات عمق 1 - 20 m (Ref. 9710).   Tropical; 31°N - 25°S, 32°E - 169°W (Ref. 5222)

پراكنش كشورها | مناطق سازمان خوار و بار جهاني (FAO) | Ecosystems | ظهور | Point map | معرفي | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: Red Sea to the Phoenix Islands and Samoa, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Australia.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / سن

Maturity: Lm 36.6, range 30 - ? cm
Max length : 80.0 cm TL جنس نر / بدون خواص جنسي; (Ref. 90102)

توصيف مختصر ريخت شناسي | ريخت ستجي بوسيله انداره گيري

خارهاي باله پشتي (کل): 7 - 8; شعاع نرم باله پشتي (کل): 10-12; خارهاي باله مخرجي 3; شعاع نرم باله مخرجي: 8. This species is distinguished by the following characters: body elongate and robust, depth 2.9-3.9 in SL; preopercle broadly rounded, with 3 large, ventrally-directed spines along lower half; opercle with 3 flat spines, the upper and lower spines covered by skin; nostrils subequal, set in a shallow groove running forward from eye; large canine teeth at front of jaws; 1-4 large canines on side of lower jaw; gill rakers of first gill arch 0-2 + 2-7; caudal fin truncate to slightly emarginate, the caudal concavity more than 13 times in HL; pectoral-fin rays 15-16, 2.0-2.3 in HL; lateral-line scales 83-97. Colour whitish to pale grey color, with numerous round to oval dark-edged blue spots (the largest about equal to pupil); most spots within a spot diameter of adjacent spots; head, body, and median fins frequently with 4-5 dark blotches forming saddles on back (greenish grey); pelvic fins with dark brown to blackish membranes; rear margin of caudal fin with a white edge and often with a blackish submarginal band (Ref. 39231, 89707, 90102).

زيست شناسي     واژه نامه (بعنوان مثال epibenthic)

Adults inhabit lagoon and seaward reefs, in areas with rich coral growth. Most frequently encountered in channels along the reef front (Ref. 9710, 48635). Often a shy fish (Ref. 48635). Feed exclusively on fishes (Ref. 37816). Misidentified as P. leopardus in Ref. 2928 (Johannes, pers. comm.). This study reports of a declining stock in Palau due to fishing. Before actual spawning around full moon, the species aggregates along channels and are responsive to baited hooks, making them vulnerable to fishermen; upward movements of some to take baited hooks presumably mistaken for courtship or spawning behavior. Large individuals may be ciguatoxic in certain areas (Ref. 37816). In the Hong Kong live fish markets (Ref. 27253). Of interest to artisanal fisheries and caught with hook-and-line (Ref. 39231).

Life cycle and mating behavior بلوغ | تولید مثل | تخم ریزی | تخم ها | Fecundity | توزاد ( لارو)

مآخذ اصلی Upload your references | مراجع | هماهنگ كننده : Heemstra, Phillip C. | همكاران

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

وضعيت در فهرست قرمز IUCN (Ref. 120744)


CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

خطر برای انسان ها

  Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 4690)





استفاده انسانی

ماهي گيري – شيلات: ارزش تحاري اندك
FAO(ماهي گيري – شيلات: production; publication : search) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

اطلاعات بيشتر

اسامي عام
مترادف
سوخت و ساز
شکارچیان
سم شناسي بوم زيستي
تولید مثل
بلوغ
تخم ریزی
Spawning aggregation
Fecundity
تخم ها
نمو تخم
Age/Size
رشد
طول - وزن
طول - طول
نوسانات طولی
ريخت ستجي بوسيله انداره گيري
ريخت شناسي
توزاد ( لارو)
پويايي لاروي
بازسازی
فراواني
مراجع
آبزي پروري
نمايه آبزي پروري
نژادها
ژنتيك
تواتر آلل ها
وارث
بيماري ها
فرآوری
Mass conversion
همكاران
عکس ها
Stamps, Coins Misc.
صداها
سيگواترا
سرعت
نوع شناگری
منطقه آبششي
Otoliths
مغزها
بینایی

ابزارها

گزارش های ويژه

بارگيری XML

منابع اينترنتي

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 26.4 - 29.3, mean 28.5 (based on 1868 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5078   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00550 - 0.02289), b=3.05 (2.88 - 3.22), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.5   ±0.80 se; Based on food items.
Generation time: 1.7 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
جهندگی (Ref. 120179):  متوسط, كمينه زمان لازم براي دو برابر شدن جمعيت 4/1 – 4/4 سال (tm=2.5; Tmax=14;).
آسيب پذيری (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100) .
طبقه قيمت (Ref. 80766):   Very high.