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Plectropomus areolatus (Rüppell, 1830)

Squaretail coralgrouper
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Plectropomus areolatus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Plectropomus areolatus (Squaretail coralgrouper)
Plectropomus areolatus
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) 鱸形目 (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) 鮨科 (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Plectropomus: Greek,plektron = anything to strike with, spur + Greek, poma = cover, operculum (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Rüppell.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋 礁區魚類; 深度上下限 1 - 20 m (Ref. 9710).   熱帶; 31°N - 25°S, 32°E - 169°W (Ref. 5222)

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: Red Sea to the Phoenix Islands and Samoa, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Australia.
印度-太平洋: 紅海到鳳凰島與美屬薩摩亞, 北至琉球群島, 南至澳洲。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 36.6, range 30 - ? cm
Max length : 80.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 90102)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 7 - 8; 背的軟條 (總數): 10-12; 臀棘 3; 臀鰭軟條: 8. This species is distinguished by the following characters: body elongate and robust, depth 2.9-3.9 in SL; preopercle broadly rounded, with 3 large, ventrally-directed spines along lower half; opercle with 3 flat spines, the upper and lower spines covered by skin; nostrils subequal, set in a shallow groove running forward from eye; large canine teeth at front of jaws; 1-4 large canines on side of lower jaw; gill rakers of first gill arch 0-2 + 2-7; caudal fin truncate to slightly emarginate, the caudal concavity more than 13 times in HL; pectoral-fin rays 15-16, 2.0-2.3 in HL; lateral-line scales 83-97. Colour whitish to pale grey color, with numerous round to oval dark-edged blue spots (the largest about equal to pupil); most spots within a spot diameter of adjacent spots; head, body, and median fins frequently with 4-5 dark blotches forming saddles on back (greenish grey); pelvic fins with dark brown to blackish membranes; rear margin of caudal fin with a white edge and often with a blackish submarginal band (Ref. 39231, 89707, 90102).
有截形的尾部有一個狹窄的白色後緣 , 與相當大的擁擠黑色邊的圓形藍色的斑點.(參考文獻 37816)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Adults inhabit lagoon and seaward reefs, in areas with rich coral growth. Most frequently encountered in channels along the reef front (Ref. 9710, 48635). Often a shy fish (Ref. 48635). Feed exclusively on fishes (Ref. 37816). Misidentified as P. leopardus in Ref. 2928 (Johannes, pers. comm.). This study reports of a declining stock in Palau due to fishing. Before actual spawning around full moon, the species aggregates along channels and are responsive to baited hooks, making them vulnerable to fishermen; upward movements of some to take baited hooks presumably mistaken for courtship or spawning behavior. Large individuals may be ciguatoxic in certain areas (Ref. 37816). In the Hong Kong live fish markets (Ref. 27253). Of interest to artisanal fisheries and caught with hook-and-line (Ref. 39231).

成魚棲息於潟湖與臨海礁石, 有豐饒的珊瑚成長的地方。 最常在峽道見到沿著礁前面.(參考文獻 9710,48635) 時常一個害羞的魚.(參考文獻 48635) 只吃魚。 (參考文獻 37816) 參考文獻 2928 被誤鑑成 P. leopardus(葡萄牙金幣, pers. comm.)。 在帛琉的族群減少的報告由於釣魚的這一個研究。 以前實際產卵在月圓前後期間, 此魚種沿著峽道聚集而且對誘餌有反應, 使他們易受傷害對漁夫; 一些的向上運動帶誘餌可能被誤認為求偶期或產卵行為。 在特定的區域中的大個體可能具有熱帶海魚毒.(參考文獻 37816) 在香港活魚販售。 (參考文獻 27253)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

印度-太平洋: 紅海到鳳凰島與美屬薩摩亞, 北至琉球群島, 南至澳洲。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 : Heemstra, Phillip C. | 合作者

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 120744)

  次級保育類動物, 見 IUCN 紅皮書 (VU) (A2bd); Date assessed: 17 November 2016

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  有雪卡魚毒中毒的報導 (Ref. 4690)





人類使用

漁業: 低經濟
FAO(漁業: 產生; publication : search) | FishSource | 周邊海洋

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 26.4 - 29.3, mean 28.5 (based on 1868 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5078   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00550 - 0.02289), b=3.05 (2.88 - 3.22), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  4.5   ±0.80 se; Based on food items.
Generation time: 1.7 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (tm=2.5; Tmax=14;).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.