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Epinephelus spilotoceps Schultz, 1953

Foursaddle grouper
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Epinephelus spilotoceps   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Epinephelus spilotoceps (Foursaddle grouper)
Epinephelus spilotoceps
Picture by Seycek, O.

分類 / Names 共通名の | 類義語 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

条鰭類 > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Schultz.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態学

; 海 関連する礁; 深さの範囲 0 - 30 m (Ref. 9710).   Tropical; 12°N - 24°S, 55°E - 154°W (Ref. 5222)

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Indo-West-Pacific: East coast of Africa to the Line Islands. Except for its occurrence along the African coast (Zanzibar, Tanzania to Ponta Zavora, Mozambique) it seems to be primarily an insular species, occurring at most (probably all) of the islands of tropical Indian and west-central Pacific. Not known from the Red Sea, Persian Gulf, Sri Lanka, Philippines, Taiwan, Japan, or Australian waters (however, it is found at Rowley Shoals off Western Australia).

Length at first maturity / サイズ / 重さ / 年齢

Maturity: Lm ?, range 19 - ? cm
Max length : 35.0 cm TL オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 30874)

簡単な記述 形態学 | 形態計測学

背面の脊椎 (合計): 11; 背鰭 (合計): 14-16; 肛門の骨 3; 臀鰭: 8. Preopercle rounded, with a shallow notch; the serrae are enlarged but covered with skin; upper edge of the operculum almost straight. The head and body mostly covered with close-set dark brown, olive, or reddish brown spots. Those on the dorsolateral parts of the head, body, and on median fins polygonal and close-set, with the interspaces forming a white reticulum. Those on the ventral portions are more rounded, more separated and often more reddish. Three dark blotches are often visible at the base of the dorsal fin and one forming a saddle blotch on the caudal peduncle. These blotches differentiates it from E. merra and E. quoyanus (Ref. 5222). Small conspicuous dark spots on snout and sometimes between or below the eyes (Ref. 37816).

生物学     用語集 (例 epibenthic)

Occurs in lagoon patch reefs, the upper slopes of channels, and reef margins (Ref. 1602). Carnivorous (Ref. 81697). Nothing has been published on its biology. Solitary (Ref 90102).

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟 | 繁殖 | 放精 | | 生産力 | 幼生

主な参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | コーディネーター : Heemstra, Phillip C. | 協力者

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

IUCNのレッドリストの状況は (Ref. 120744)

  軽度懸念 (LC) ; Date assessed: 06 November 2017

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

人間に対する脅威

  Harmless





Human uses

水産業: 商業; ゲームフィッシュ: はい
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource |

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 26.1 - 29.3, mean 28.6 (based on 1392 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00955 (0.00563 - 0.01619), b=3.07 (2.93 - 3.21), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
栄養段階 (Ref. 69278):  3.7   ±0.6 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
回復力 (Ref. 69278):  手段, 1.4年~4.4年の倍増期間の最小個体群 (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
弱み (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (34 of 100) .
価格帯 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.